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"Macao" redirects here. For other uses of "Macau" or "Macao", see Macau (disambiguation).
"RAEM" redirects here. For the Final Fantasy character, see Final Fantasy Crystal Chronicles § Story.
Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China
中華人民共和國澳門特別行政區(Chinese) Jūng'wàh Yàhnmàhn Guhng'wòhgwok Oumún Dahkbiht Hàhngjingkēui(Cantonese) Região Administrativa Especial de Macau da República Popular da China(Portuguese)
"March of the Volunteers"
Marcha dos Voluntários
Location of Macau within China
Special administrative region
Ethnic groups (2014)
Devolved parliamentarymulti-party system within socialist republic
• Chief Executive
• Administration and Justice Secretary
• Economy and Finance Secretary
• Security Secretary
Wong Sio Chak
• Assembly President
Ho Iat Seng
• Court President
Sam Hou Fai
• National People's Congress
12 deputies (of 2,924)
• Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference
29 delegates (of 2,158)
Autonomy within the People's Republic of China
• Portuguese settlement
• Sino-Portuguese Treaty of Peking
1 December 1887
• Transfer of sovereignty
20 December 1999
115.3 km (44.5 sq mi)
• Water (%)
• 2016 census
21,411/km (55,454.2/sq mi) (1st)
$65.383 billion (93rd)
• Per capita
$44.803 billion (83rd)
• Per capita
0.905 very high · 17th
Macanese pataca (MOP)
Macau Standard Time (UTC+8)
Drives on the
ISO 3166 code
Cantonese is the de facto standard.
For all government use, documents written using Traditional Chinese characters are authoritative over ones inscribed with Simplified Chinese characters. Portuguese shares equal status with Chinese in all official proceedings.
The UN does not calculate the HDI of Macau. The government of Macau calculates its own HDI.
Macao Special Administrative Region
澳門特別行政區 (or 澳門特區)
澳门特别行政区 (or 澳门特区)
Àomén Tèbié Xíngzhèngqū (Àomén Tèqū)
aumen dehbih ghantsenchiu
Aumun Tetpiet hangzinki
Oumún Dahkbiht Hàhngjing Keūi
[ōu.mǔːn tɐ̀k̚.piːt̚ hɐ̏ŋ.tsēŋ kʰɵ́y]
Ou3mun2 Dak6bit6 Hang4zing3 Keoi1
Oumun Degbid Hengjing Kêu
Ò-mn̂g Te̍k-pia̍t Hêng-chèng-khu
Região Administrativa Especial de Macau
(for "Macau Special Administrative Region")
pronounced [ʁɨʒiˈɐ̃w̃ ɐdminiʃtɾɐˈtivɐ (ɨ)ʃpɨsiˈaɫ dɨ mɐˈkaw]
Macau (Chinese: 澳門, Cantonese: [ōu.mǔːn], /məˈkaʊ/ (listen); Portuguese: Macau), officially the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory on the western side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia. Macau is bordered by the city of Zhuhai in mainland China to the north and the Pearl River Delta to the east and south. Hong Kong lies about 64 kilometres (40 mi) to its east across the Delta. With a population of 650,900 living in an area of 30.5 km (11.8 sq mi), it is the most densely populated region in the world. A former Portuguese colony, it was returned to Chinese sovereignty on 20 December 1999.
Macau was administered by the Portuguese Empire and its inheritor states from the mid-16th century until late 1999, when it constituted the last remaining European colony in Asia. Portuguese traders first settled in Macau in the 1550s. In 1557, Macau was leased to Portugal from Ming China as a trading port. The Portuguese Empire administered the city under Chinese authority and sovereignty until 1887, when Macau became a colony through an agreement forced by Portugal after instability in China. Sovereignty over Macau was transferred back to China on 20 December 1999. The Joint Declaration on the Question of Macau and Macau Basic Law stipulate that Macau operate with a high degree of autonomy until at least 2049, fifty years after the transfer.
Under the policy of "one country, two systems", the Central People's Government of the People's Republic of China is responsible for military defense and foreign affairs while Macau maintains its own legal system, public security force, monetary system, customs policy and immigration policy. Macau participates in international organizations and events that do not require members to possess national sovereignty.
Macau is a resort city in Southern China, known for its casinos and luxury hotels. Its gaming revenue has been the world's largest since 2006, with the economy heavily dependent on gaming and tourism. According to The World Factbook, Macau has the fourth highest life expectancy in the world. Moreover, it has a very high Human Development Index, ranking 17th in the world as of 2016[update]. Macau is among the world's richest regions and its GDP per capita by purchasing power parity was higher than that of any country in the world, according to the World Bank.
It is known as the pre-eminent gambling (or gaming) capital of the world, dwarfing other gambling centers.
Main article: Names of Macau
The present Chinese name (Chinese: 澳門; pinyin: Àomén; Cantonese Yale: Oumún) means "Bay Outlet". Macao is otherwise known in Chinese as Haojing (濠鏡, literally "Moat Mirror") or Jinghai (鏡海, literally "Mirror Sea"). The name Macao is thought to be derived from the A-Ma Temple (Chinese: 媽閣廟; pinyin: Māgé Miào; Cantonese Yale: Māgok Miuh), a temple built in 1448 dedicated to Mazu, the goddess of seafarers and fishermen. More precisely, the name Macao corresponds to the Chinese name "媽港" (pinyin: Māgǎng), meaning "Mazu Harbor", and referring to the waters adjacent to the Ama Temple.
Main articles: History of Macau, Portuguese Macau, and Transfer of sovereignty over Macau
Ruins of St. Paul's, built in 1602 and destroyed by fire in 1835
The history of Macao is traced back to the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC), when the region now called Macao came under the jurisdiction of Panyu County, Nanhai Prefecture (modern Guangdong). The first recorded Chinese inhabitants of the area were people seeking refuge in Macao from invading Mongols during the Southern Song. Under the Ming dynasty (1368–1644), fishermen migrated to Macao from Guangdong and Fujian. The Macao native people were Tanka boat people.
Macao did not develop as a major settlement until the Portuguese arrived in the 16th century. In 1513, Jorge Álvares became the first Portuguese to land in China. In 1535, Portuguese traders obtained the rights to anchor ships in Macao's harbours and to carry out trading activities, though not the right to stay onshore. Around 1552–1553, they obtained temporary permission to erect storage sheds onshore, in order to dry out goods drenched by sea water; they soon built rudimentary stone houses around the area now called Nam Van.
In 1557, the Portuguese established a permanent settlement in Macao, paying an annual rent of 500 taels (18.9 kilograms / 41.6 pounds) of silver. The Portuguese continued to pay an annual tribute up to 1863 in order to stay in Macao.
By 1564, Portugal commanded western trade with India, Japan, and China. In 1631 the Chinese restricted Portuguese commerce in China to the port of Macao.
During the 17th century, some 5,000 slaves lived in Macao, in addition to 2,000 Portuguese and 20,000 Chinese.
As more Portuguese settled in Macao to engage in trade, they made demands for self-administration; but this was not achieved until the 1840s. In 1576, Pope Gregory XIII established the Roman Catholic Diocese of Macao. In 1583, the Portuguese in Macao were permitted to form a Senate to handle various issues concerning their social and economic affairs under strict supervision of the Chinese authority, but there was no transfer of sovereignty.
Macao, c. 1870
Macao prospered as a port but it was the target of repeated failed attempts by the Dutch to conquer it in the 17th century. On 24 June 1622, the Dutch attacked Macao in the Battle of Macao, in the hope of turning it into a Dutch possession. The Portuguese repulsed their attack and the Dutch never tried to conquer Macao again. The majority of the defenders were African slaves, with only a few Portuguese soldiers and priests. Captain Kornelis Reyerszoon was commander of the 800-strong Dutch invasion force.
The grieving Dutch Governor Jan Pz. Coen said after the defeat that "The slaves of the Portuguese at Macao served them so well and faithfully, that it was they who defeated and drove away our people there last year", and "Our people saw very few Portuguese" during the battle.
Following the First Opium War (1839–42), Portugal occupied the empty islands of Taipa and Coloane in 1851 and 1864 respectively. On 1 December 1887, the Qing and Portuguese governments signed the Sino-Portuguese Treaty of Peking, under which China ceded the right of "perpetual occupation and government of Macao by Portugal" in compliance with the statements of the Protocol of Lisbon. In return, Macao Government would cooperate with Hong Kong's smuggling trade in Indian opium and China would profit from imposing customs taxes. Portugal was also obliged "never to alienate Macao without previous agreement with China", therefore ensuring that negotiation between Portugal and France (regarding a possible exchange of Macao and Portuguese Guinea with the French Congo) or with other countries would not go forward – so that the British commercial interests would be secured; Macao officially became a territory under Portuguese administration.
In 1928, after the Qing dynasty had been overthrown following the Xinhai Revolution, the Kuomintang (KMT) government officially notified Portugal that it would abrogate the Treaty of Amity and Commerce; the two powers signed a new Sino-Portuguese Friendship and Trade Treaty in place of the abrogated treaty. Changing only a few provisions concerning tariff principles and matters relating to business affairs, the new treaty did not alter the sovereignty of Macao and Portuguese government of Macao remained unchanged.
During World War II, unlike Portuguese Timor, which was occupied by the Japanese in 1942 along with Dutch Timor, the Japanese respected Portuguese neutrality in Macao, but only up to a point. Macao enjoyed a brief period of economic prosperity as the only neutral port in South China after the Japanese had occupied Guangzhou and Hong Kong. In August 1943, Japanese troops seized the British steamer Sian in Macao and killed about 20 guards. The next month they demanded the installation of Japanese "advisors" under the threat of overt military occupation. The result was that a virtual Japanese protectorate was created over Macao.
The "O Porto Interior" in Macao, c. 1900
When it was discovered that "neutral" Macao was planning to sell aviation fuel to Japan, aircraft from the USS Enterprise bombed and strafed the hangar of the Naval Aviation Centre on 16 January 1945 to destroy the fuel. American air raids on targets in Macao were also made on 25 February and 11 June 1945. Following Portuguese government protests, in 1950 the United States paid US$20,255,952 to the government of Portugal.
Between the end of the Pacific War and the establishment of the People's Republic of China, Macao served as a safe haven for refugees of the Chinese Civil War.
After the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, the Beijing government declared the Sino-Portuguese Treaty invalid as an "unequal treaty" imposed by foreigners on China. However, Beijing was not ready to settle the treaty question, allowing the maintenance of "the status quo" until a more appropriate time.
Influenced by the Cultural Revolution in mainland China and by general dissatisfaction with Portuguese government, riots broke out in Macao in 1966. In the most serious, the so-called 12-3 incident, 6 people were killed and more than 200 people were injured. On 28 January 1967, the Portuguese government issued a formal apology by means of an "admission of guilt".
The Peoples Liberation Army enters Macao for the first time
Shortly after Portugal's 1974 Carnation Revolution, which overthrew the Estado Novo dictatorship, the new government determined it would relinquish all its overseas possessions. In 1976, Lisbon redefined Macao as a "Chinese territory under Portuguese administration" and granted it a large measure of administrative, financial, and economic autonomy. Three years later, Portugal and China agreed to regard Macao as "a Chinese territory under [temporary] Portuguese administration". The Chinese and Portuguese governments commenced negotiations on the question of Macao in June 1986. The two signed the Sino-Portuguese Joint Declaration the next year, making Macao one of the special administrative regions of China.
Transfer of sovereignty and SAR status
The Chinese government assumed formal sovereignty over Macao on 20 December 1999 as a special administrative region (SAR) after over 400 years of Portuguese colonial rule. This event also marked the end of the Portuguese Empire and European colonialism in Asia. The economy since then has continued to prosper with the sustained growth of tourism from mainland China and the construction of new casinos.
Government and politics
Main articles: Politics of Macau, Legislative Assembly of Macau, Legal system of Macau, and Civic and Municipal Affairs Bureau
Macao Government Headquarters
The Sino-Portuguese Joint Declaration and Macao Basic Law, Macao's constitution, promulgated by China's National People's Congress in 1993, specify that Macao's social and economic system, lifestyle, rights, and freedoms are to remain unchanged for at least 50 years after the transfer of sovereignty to China in 1999. Under the principle of "one country, two systems", Macao enjoys a high degree of autonomy in all areas except defence and foreign affairs. Macao officials, rather than PRC officials, run Macao through the exercise of separate executive, legislative, and judicial powers, as well as the right to final adjudication. Macao maintains its own currency (the Macanese pataca), customs territory, immigration and border controls and police force.
The government in Macao is headed by the Chief Executive of Macao, who is appointed by the central government upon the recommendation of an election committee, whose three hundred members are nominated by corporate and community bodies. The recommendation is made by an election within the committee. The chief executive's cabinet is made up of five policy secretaries and two commissariats and is advised by the Executive Council of Macao, which has between seven and eleven members. Edmund Ho, a community leader and former banker, was the first chief executive of the Macao SAR, replacing General Vasco Rocha Vieira at midnight on 20 December 1999. Fernando Chui is the current Chief Executive. The chief executive and the cabinet have their offices in the Macao Government Headquarters, located in the area of São Lourenço.
Legislative Assembly of Macao
The legislative organ of the territory is the Legislative Assembly, a 33-member body comprising 14 directly elected members, 12 indirectly elected members representing functional constituencies and seven members appointed by the chief executive. Any permanent residents at or over 18 years of age are eligible to vote in direct elections. Indirect election is limited to organizations registered as "corporate voters" and a 300-member election committee drawn from broad regional groupings, municipal organizations, and central government bodies.
In February 2009, the Legislative Assembly passed the Macao national security law based on a withdrawn security legislation previously introduced in Hong Kong. Democracy advocates feared that the bill's excessively broad scope could lead to abuses, a concern which has been heightened after a number of prominent supporters of democracy in Hong Kong were denied entry into Macao in the run-up to the bill's passage.
Main article: Legal system of Macau
Seat of the Superior Tribunal of Macao
The original framework of the legal system, based largely on the Law of Portugal, the Portuguese civil law system, was preserved after 1999. The territory has its own independent judicial system with a High Court independent of both the local Government and the Central People's Government of the People's Republic of China. Judges are selected by a committee and appointed by the chief executive. Foreign judges may serve on the courts.
The judicial organs of the Macao are the Public Ministry; the Courts of First Instance, which are subdivided into the Basic Judicial Court and Administrative Court; the Court of the Second Instance and the Court of Final Appeal.
The legal system of Macao is essentially based on the model of Portuguese law, and is thus part of the family of continental legal systems (Roman-Germanic). From 1987 to 1999, this legal system was completely modernized with a view to the transfer of sovereignty from Macao to the People's Republic of China. Thus, a number of new laws and codes have been adopted, including the Criminal Code (1995), the Civil Code (1999), the Commercial Code (1999), the Criminal Procedure Code (1996) and the Civil Procedure Code (1999). Following the transition, major reforms in the legal system continued, such as the use of Chinese language in courts and legislations.
From a constitutional point of view, the Macao legal system is characterized by the existence of a text with constitutional force in the Macao SAR, the Basic Law of the Macao Special Administrative Region, promulgated by the National People's Congress in 1993. As a rule, the national laws of the People's Republic of China do not apply to Macao, except for those expressly indicated in Annex III of the Basic Law. At present, they are eleven and deal with matters not included in the autonomy of the Special Administrative Region, such as national defense and external relations.
The gambling sector, being a fundamental economic activity for Macao, is subject to a very developed regulation, thus having a good and developed right of the game. There is no death penalty or life imprisonment in Macao, as they are not covered by the Macao Criminal Code.
Macao Police vehicles
Main article: People's Liberation Army Macau Garrison
See also: Military of Macau under Portuguese rule and Liaison Office of the Central People's Government in the Macao Special Administrative Region
Under Portuguese rule, Macao often served as an expeditionary base to Japan and other regions of East Asia from the 16th century onwards, while maintaining a strong garrison mainly to repel Dutch and mainland Chinese attacks. However, since the allied British settled Hong Kong, the need for a strong military presence in Macao dimmed and it became limited before ceasing in 1974. However, despite having no Portuguese garrison left on the territory, a small security force managed by the local PSP was kept, which proved useful with the escalating triad warfare tensions towards the last decades of Portuguese administration. Also the Capitania dos Portos kept operating a coast guard and the Portuguese airforce kept airfields active until the opening of Macao International Airport in the mid-1990s. In 1999, upon handover to the PRC, a substantial garrison of the People's Liberation Army was established in the city helping deliver the last blow to the violence perpetrated by the triads, who were weakened by police action and arrests prior to the handover. The garrison remains, with a large portion of the forces stationed in neighbouring Zhuhai as well.
According to the Article 14, Macao Basic Law, The Central People's Government shall be responsible for the defense of the Macao Special Administrative Region. And The Government of the Macao SAR shall be responsible for the maintenance of public order in the Region.
Main article: Foreign relations of Macau
As a special administrative region (SAR) of the People's Republic of China (PRC), Macao's diplomatic relations and defence are the responsibility of the Central People's Government of the PRC. Except diplomatic relations and defence, nonetheless, Macao has retained considerable autonomy in all aspects, including economic and commercial relations, customs control.
According to Chapter VII of Macao's basic law, Macao may, on its own, using the name Macao, China or Macao, China, maintain and develop relations and conclude and implement agreements with foreign states and regions and relevant international organisations in the appropriate fields, including the economic, trade, financial and monetary, shipping, communications, tourism, cultural, science and technology, and sports fields. In addition, Macao can participate in international organizations and conferences not limited to states.
The Macao government has maintained offices in Lisbon, Taipei, Beijing and in Brussels for the European Union and Geneva for the World Trade Organization. The Special Administrative Region of Macao is member of the World Trade Organization, International Monetary Fund as well as other international cultural and commercial organizations. Macao is twinned with:
São Paulo, Brazil
Praia, Cape Verde
Da Nang, Vietnam
San Francisco, United States
Seoul, South Korea
Macao has established different friendship conventions and cultural memorandums with sister cities.
Administrative divisions of Macao
Macao is divided into 8 parishes.
Nossa Senhora de Fátima
Nossa Senhora do Carmo
São Francisco Xavier
Main article: Geography of Macau
Macao is situated 60 kilometres (37 mi) southwest of Hong Kong and 145 kilometres (90 mi) from Guangzhou of Mainland China. It also has 41 kilometres (25 mi) of coastline, yet only 310 metres (1,000 ft) of land border with Guangdong of Mainland China. It consists of the Macao Peninsula itself and the islands of Taipa and Coloane, which are now connected by landfill forming Cotai. The peninsula is formed by the Zhu Jiang (Pearl River) estuary on the east and the Xi Jiang (West River) on the west. It borders the Zhuhai Special Economic Zone in mainland China. The main border crossing between Macao and China is known as the Portas do Cerco (Barrier Gate) on the Macao side, and the Gongbei Port of Entry on the Zhuhai side.
Lago Nam Van, Macao
View of the casinos from Science Center
View of Taipa from Science Center
East China Sea between Taipa and the Macau Peninsula, Macau
Aerial view of Macau at night
View of the old city in Macau with tenement housing in the foreground
View of the old city
Macao Peninsula was originally an island, but a connecting sandbar gradually turned into a narrow isthmus. Land reclamation in the 17th century transformed Macao into a peninsula with generally flat terrain, though numerous steep hills still mark the original land mass. Alto de Coloane is the highest point in Macao, with an altitude of 170.6 metres (559.7 ft). With a dense urban environment, Macao has no arable land, pastures, forest, or woodland.
In 2015, the Chinese government assigned Macao administrative responsibility for 85 km (33 sq mi) of coastal ocean area.
Macao has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification: Cwa), despite its low elevation coastal location south of the Tropic of Cancer, with average relative humidity between 75% and 90%. Similar to much of South China, seasonal climate is greatly influenced by the monsoons, and differences in temperature and humidity between summer and winter are noticeable, though not as great as in mainland China. The average annual temperature of Macao is 22.7 °C (72.9 °F). July is the warmest month, the average temperature being 28.9 °C (84.0 °F). The coolest month is January, with a mean temperature of 14.5 °C (58.1 °F).
Located on China's southern coast, Macao has ample rainfall, with average annual precipitation being 2,120 millimetres (83 in). However, winter is mostly dry due to the influence of the vast Siberian High affecting much of East Asia. Autumn in Macao, from October to November, is sunny and still pleasantly warm with lower humidity. Winter (December to early March) is generally mild with temperatures above 13 °C (55 °F) most of the time, although they can drop below 8 °C (46 °F) at times. Humidity starts to increase from late March. Summer is very warm to hot (often rising above 30 °C (86 °F) during the day). The hot weather is often followed by heavy rain, thunderstorms and occasional typhoons.
Climate data for Macau (1981–2010, extremes 1901–present)
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average precipitation days
Average relative humidity (%)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Source: Macao Meteorological and Geophysical Bureau
Climate data for Macao
Average sea temperature °C (°F)
Mean daily daylight hours
Average Ultraviolet index
Source: Weather Atlas
Main articles: Economy of Macau and Gambling in Macau
Seat of the Banco Nacional Ultramarino
Employed population by
Service & sale workers
Workers in agriculture/fishery
Craft & similar workers
Macao's economy is based largely on tourism. Other chief economic activities in Macao are export-geared textile and garment manufacturing, banking and other financial services. The clothing industry provides about three quarters of export earnings, and the gaming, tourism and hospitality industry is estimated to contribute more than 50% of Macao's GDP, and 70% of Macao government revenue.
Macao is a founding member of the WTO and has maintained sound economic and trade relations with more than 120 countries and regions, with European Union and Portuguese-speaking countries in particular; Macao is also a member of the IMF. The World Bank classifies Macao as a high income economy and the GDP per capita of the region in 2006 was US$28,436. After the 1999 Handover, China eased travel restrictions and visits from the mainland rose rapidly. Together with the liberalization of Macao's gaming industry in 2001, which induced significant investment inflows, the average growth rate of the economy between 2001 and 2006 was approximately 13.1% annually.
In a World Tourism Organization report of international tourism for 2006, Macao ranked 21st in the number of tourists and 24th in terms of tourism receipts. From 9.1 million visitors in 2000, arrivals to Macao has grown to 18.7 million visitors in 2005 and 22 million visitors in 2006, with over 50% of the arrivals coming from mainland China and another 30% from Hong Kong.
Starting in 1962, the gambling industry had been operated under a government-issued monopoly license by Stanley Ho's Sociedade de Turismo e Diversões de Macao. The monopoly ended in 2002 and several casino owners from Las Vegas attempted to enter the market. With the opening of the Sands Macao, in 2004 and Wynn Macao in 2006, gambling revenues from Macao's casinos grew considerably prosperous. In 2007, Venetian Macao, at the time the second (in 2017 is seventh) largest building in the world by floor area, opened its doors to the public, followed by MGM Grand Macao. Numerous other hotel casinos, including Galaxy Cotai Megaresort, opened in 2011, and plans for a $3.9 billion complex that will be known as Lisboa Palace is expected to be completed by 2017. In February 2015, the gambling revenue in Macao fell by 48.6 percent from a year earlier to 19.5 billion patacas ($2.4 billion), the biggest monthly decline that has ever been recorded. Reasons for this fall of revenue are related to the slowdown that the Chinese economy is having and a corruption crackdown by Chinese officials which has constrained lavish spending.
In 2002, the Macao government ended the monopoly system and six casino operating concessions and subconcessions are granted to Sociedade de Turismo e Diversões de Macao, Wynn Resorts, Las Vegas Sands, Galaxy Entertainment Group, the partnership of MGM Mirage and Pansy Ho (daughter of Stanley Ho), and the partnership of Melco and Publishing and Broadcasting Limited (PBL). Today, there are 16 casinos operated by the STDM, and they are still crucial in the casino industry in Macao, but in 2004, the opening of the Sands Macao ushered in the new era. Gambling revenue has made Macao the world's top casino market, surpassing Las Vegas.
The amount of performances performed in Macao has also shown an increasing trend since the early 2010s, including the show House of Dancing Water, concerts, industry trade shows and international art crossovers.
Macao is an offshore financial centre, a tax haven, and a free port with no foreign exchange control regimes. The Monetary Authority of Macao regulates offshore finance, while the Macao Trade and Investment Promotion Institute provides services for investment in Macao. In 2007, Moody's Investors Service upgraded Macao's foreign and local currency government issuer ratings to 'Aa3' from 'A1', citing its government's solid finances as a large net creditor. The rating agency also upgraded Macao's foreign currency bank deposit ceiling to 'Aa3' from 'A1'.
As prescribed by the Macao Basic Law, the government follows the principle of keeping expenditure within the limits of revenues in drawing up its budget, and strives to achieve a fiscal balance, avoid deficits and keep the budget commensurate with the growth rate of its gross domestic product. All financial revenue of the Macao Special Administrative Region shall be managed and controlled by the region itself and shall not be handed over to the Central People's Government. The Central People's Government shall not levy any taxes in the Macao Special Administrative Region.
Sands Casino, Macau
Casino Resort MGM Macau
Governador Nobre de Carvalho Bridge, Macau
City of Dreams
Both sides of 100 patacas issued by BNU on 13 July 1992
In Macao, the unit of currency is the pataca, which is currently pegged to the Hong Kong dollar at a rate of HK$1 = MOP1.03. The name pataca is a Portuguese word which was applied to the Mexican dollars that were the main circulating coin in the wider region in the second half of the 19th century. In 1894, the pataca was introduced in both Macao and Portuguese Timor as a unit of account for the Mexican dollar and the other silver dollar coins in circulation. However, the pataca was not the official currency when it was first enacted. In 1901, it was decided to grant the Banco Nacional Ultramarino the exclusive rights to issue banknotes denominated in patacas, and in the year 1906, all foreign coins were outlawed. However, the Chinese were suspicious of these paper patacas, being so accustomed to using silver for barter, and as such, the paper patacas circulated at a discount in relation to the silver dollar coins.In 1935, when China and Hong Kong abandoned the silver standard, the Hong Kong dollar was pegged to sterling at the fixed rate of 1 shilling and 3 pence, whereas the pataca was pegged to the Portuguese escudo at a sterling equivalent rate of only 1 shilling. From 1945 to 1951, fractional coins of the pataca were minted for issue in Portuguese Timor; and, in 1952, similar issues were minted for Macao including an actual pataca coin for the first time.
Main articles: Demographics of Macau and Macau people
Macao is the most densely populated region in the world, with a population density of 21,185.28 persons per square kilometre in 2016. Han Chinese make up 95% of Macao's population; another 2% is of Portuguese and/or mixed Chinese/Portuguese descent, an ethnic group often referred to as Macanese. According to the 2006 by-census, 47% of the residents were born in mainland China, of whom 74.1% were born in Guangdong and 15.2% in Fujian. Meanwhile, 42.5% of the residents were born in Macao, and those born in Hong Kong, the Philippines and Portugal shared 3.7%, 2.0% and 0.3% respectively.
The growth of population in Macao mainly relies on immigrants from mainland China and the influx of overseas workers since its birth rate is one of the lowest in the world. According to The World Factbook, Macao has the fourth highest life expectancy in the world, while its infant mortality rate ranks among the lowest in the world.
languages spoken at home
Other Chinese varieties
Many boards and establishments make use of names in Chinese and Portuguese
Macao's official languages are Chinese (Cantonese) and Portuguese. Macao still retains its own dialect of Portuguese, called Macanese Portuguese. Other languages-such as Mandarin, English, and Hokkien-are spoken by local communities. The Macanese language, a distinctive creole generally known as Patuá, is still spoken by several dozen Macanese.
Since Macao has an economy driven by tourism, 14.6% of the workforce is employed in restaurants and hotels, and 10.3% in the gambling industry. With the opening of several casino resorts and other major constructions underway, many sectors reportedly experience a shortage of labour, and the government seeks to import labour from neighbouring regions.
The number of imported workers stood at a record high of 98,505 in the second quarter of 2008, representing more than 25% of the labour force in Macao. Some local workers complain about the lack of jobs due to the influx of cheap imported labour. Some also claim that the problem of illegal labour is severe. Another concern is the widening of income inequality in the region. Macao's Gini coefficient, a popular measure of income inequality where a low value indicates a more equal income distribution, rose from 0.43 in 1998 to 0.48 in 2006. It is higher than those of neighbouring regions, such as mainland China (0.447), South Korea (0.316) and Singapore (0.425).
Ruins of St. Paul's
Main article: Religion in Macau
Macao residents are endowed with considerable religious tolerance and freedom. Most Chinese in Macao are profoundly influenced by their own tradition and culture. While most are not religiously affiliated, many take part in Chinese folk religion (Taoism and Confucianism). According to a survey conducted in 2005, 2007 and 2009, 55% of the population do not declare religious affiliation, 30% follows folk faiths, 10% are adherents of Buddhism or Taoism, and the remaining 5% are Christians . Most Christians in Macao are members of the Catholic Church, which is organized and structured in Macao in the Diocese of Macao.
Main article: Education in Macau
University of Macao
A fifteen-year free education is currently being offered to residents, that includes a three-year kindergarten, followed by a six-year primary education and a six-year secondary education. The literacy rate of the territory is 93.5%. The illiterates are mainly among the senior residents aged 65 or above; the younger generation, for example the population aged 15–29, has a literacy rate of above 99%. Currently, there is only one school in Macao where Portuguese is the medium of instruction, Macao Portuguese School.
Macao does not have its own region-wide education system; non-tertiary schools follow either the British, the Chinese, Portuguese, or the Canadian education system. There are currently 10 tertiary educational institutions in the region, four of them being public. According to a post written in July 2017, The International School of Macao was ranked Macao's top private school. In 2006, the Programme for International Student Assessment, a worldwide test of 15-year-old schoolchildren's scholastic performance coordinated by OECD, ranked Macao as the fifth and sixth in science and problem solving respectively. Nevertheless, educational attainment in Macao is relatively low when compared to other high income countries. According to the 2006 by-census, among the resident population aged 14 and above, only 51.8% has a secondary education and 12.6% has a tertiary education.
As prescribed by the Basic Law of Macao Chapter VI Article 121, the Government of Macao shall, on its own, formulate policies on education, including policies regarding the educational system and its administration, the language of instruction, the allocation of funds, the examination system, the recognition of educational qualifications, and the system of academic awards so as to promote educational development. The government shall also in accordance with law, gradually institute a compulsory education system. Community organizations and individuals may, in accordance with law, run educational undertakings of various kinds.
See also: List of hospitals in Macau
Kiang Wu Hospital
Macao is served by one major public hospital, the Hospital Conde S. Januário, and one major private hospital, the Kiang Wu Hospital, both located in Macao Peninsula, as well as a university associated hospital called Macao University of Science and Technology Hospital in Cotai. In addition to hospitals, Macao also has numerous health centres providing free basic medical care to residents. Consultation in traditional Chinese medicine is also available.
None of the Macao hospitals are independently assessed through international healthcare accreditation. There are no western-style medical schools in Macao, and thus all aspiring physicians in Macao have to obtain their education and qualification elsewhere. Local nurses are trained at the Macao Polytechnic Institute and the Kiang Wu Nursing College. Currently there are no training courses in midwifery in Macao. A study by the University of Macao, commissioned by the Macao SAR government, concluded that Macao is too small to have its own medical specialist training centre.
The Macao Corps of Firefighters (Portuguese: Corpo de Bombeiros de Macao) is responsible for ambulance service (Ambulância de Macao). The Macao Red Cross also operates ambulances (Toyota HiAce vans) for emergency and non-emergencies to local hospitals with volunteer staff. The organization has a total of 739 uniformed firefighters and paramedics serving from 7 stations in Macao.
The Health Bureau in Macao is mainly responsible for coordinating the activities between the public and private organizations in the area of public health, and assure the health of citizens through specialized and primary health care services, as well as disease prevention and health promotion. The Macao Centre for Disease Control and Prevention was established in 2001, which monitors the operation of hospitals, health centres, and the blood transfusion centre in Macao. It also handles the organization of care and prevention of diseases affecting the population, sets guidelines for hospitals and private healthcare providers, and issues licences.
As of 2016[update] Macao healthcare authorities send many patients to Queen Mary Hospital in Hong Kong in certain cases, and many Macao residents intentionally seek healthcare in Hong Kong because they place more trust in Hong Kong doctors than in Mainland-trained doctors operating in Macao.
Main article: Transport in Macau
Air Macau Airbus A321
2011 Macao Yacht Fair
Ponte de Amizade (Friendship Bridge) from Macao Peninsula (left) to Taipa
Terminal of Macao International Airport (left) and a section of the LRT (right)
In Macao, traffic drives on the left, unlike in either mainland China or Portugal, but like neighbouring Hong Kong. Macao has a well-established public transport network connecting the Macao Peninsula, Cotai, Taipa Island and Coloane Island. Buses and taxis are the major modes of public transport in Macao. Currently three companies – Transmac, Transportas Companhia de Macao and Macao Nova Era de Autocarros Públicos operate franchised public bus services in Macao. The trishaw, a hybrid of the tricycle and the rickshaw, is also available, though it is mainly for sightseeing purposes. The newest public bus operator, Macao Nova Era, previously Reolian Public Transport Co., entered service on 1 August 2011. This new bus operator operates on the existing routes by Transmac and Transportas Companhia de Macao. Free Casino Shuttle Buses are everywhere in Macao. Due to tourism being the main economic industry in Macao a majority of the larger hotels provide free round trip shuttle bus services which cover the major tourist sites including the airport, Outer Harbour Ferry Terminal, Taipa Temporary Ferry Terminal and other sites. Some Larger hotels such as Venetian Hotel and Holiday Inn even provide a free shuttle between them. The frequency for each route is usually 15 minutes.
The taxi system is noted for having a notoriously poor reputation among tourists and even locals. Common complaints include "constant overcharging, refusal of passengers when the destination or passenger type does not suit the driver, circuitous routes and even violent behaviour." In recent years, the Macao government have been making attempts to hold drivers to a higher standard of service through methods such as undercover police prosecuting drivers who violate the taxi regulations on the spot.
The Outer Harbour Ferry Terminal and the Taipa Temporary Ferry Terminal provides cross-border transportation services for passengers travelling between Macao and Hong Kong, while the Yuet Tung Terminal in the Inner Harbour serves those travelling between Macao and cities in mainland China, including Shekou and Shenzhen.
The Macao Light Rapid Transit or Macao LRT also known as Metro Ligeiro de Macao is a mass transit system in Macao under construction. It will serve the Macao Peninsula, Taipa and Cotai, serving major border checkpoints such as the Border Gate, the Outer Harbour Ferry Terminal, the Lotus Bridge Border and the Macao International Airport. It is planned to open in 2019.
Macao has one active international airport, known as Macao International Airport located at the eastern end of Taipa and neighbouring waters. The airport used to serve as one of the main transit hubs for passengers travelling between mainland China and Taiwan, but now with the introduction of direct flights between those two regions, passenger traffic in this regard has lessened. It is the primary hub for Air Macau. In 2006, the airport handled about 5 million passengers.
Historic Centre of Macao
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Clockwise from top right:
Ruins of St. Paul's; Casino Lisboa; St. Joseph Seminary Church; Governor Nobre de Carvalho Bridge; A-Ma Temple; Guia Fortress; Macau Tower
Cultural: ii, iii, iv, vi
2005 (29th Session)
Main article: Culture of Macau
Remains of the Cathedral of St. Paul, Macao
The mixing of the Chinese and Portuguese cultures and religious traditions for more than four centuries has left Macao with an inimitable collection of holidays, festivals and events. The biggest event of the year is the Macao Grand Prix in November, when the main streets in Macao Peninsula are converted to a racetrack bearing similarities with the Monaco Grand Prix. Other annual events include Macao Arts festival in March, the International Fireworks Display Contest in September, the International Music festival in October and/or November, and the Macao International Marathon in December.
The Lunar Chinese New Year is the most important traditional festival and celebration normally takes place in late January or early February. The Pou Tai Un Temple in Taipa is the place for the Feast of Tou Tei, the Earth god, in February. The Procession of the Passion of Our Lord is a well-known Roman Catholic rite and journey, which travels from Saint Austin's Church to the Cathedral, also taking place in February.
A-Ma Temple, which honours the Goddess Matsu, is in full swing in April with many worshippers celebrating the A-Ma festival. In May it is common to see dancing dragons at the Feast of the Drunken Dragon and twinkling-clean Buddhas at the Feast of the Bathing of Lord Buddha. In Coloane Village, the Taoist god Tam Kong is also honoured on the same day. Dragon Boat festival is brought into play on Nam Van Lake in June and Hungry Ghosts' festival, in late August and/or early September every year. All events and festivities of the year end with Winter Solstice in December.
Macao preserves many historical properties in the urban area. The Historic Centre of Macao, which includes some twenty-five historic locations, was officially listed as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO on 15 July 2005 during the 29th session of the World Heritage Committee, held in Durban, South Africa.
Na Tcha Temple, Macau
Museum of Macau
Dom Pedro V theatre
Local cooking in Macao consists of a blend of Cantonese and Portuguese cuisines. Many unique dishes resulted from the spice blends that the wives of Portuguese sailors used in an attempt to replicate European dishes. Its ingredients and seasonings include those from Europe, South America, Africa, India, and Southeast Asia, as well as local Chinese ingredients. Typically, Macanese food is seasoned with various spices and flavours including turmeric, coconut milk, cinnamon and bacalhau, giving special aromas and tastes. Famous dishes include minchi, capella, galinha à Portuguesa, galinha à Africana (African chicken), bacalhau, Macanese chili shrimps and stir-fry curry crab. Pork chop bun, ginger milk and Portuguese-style egg tart are also very popular in Macao.
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2008 Macao F3 Grand Prix in progress
Macao has its own professional football league, the Campeonato da 1ª Divisão do Futebol, where the Big Three professional football clubs of Portugal have their own branches: S.L. Benfica de Macao, Sporting Clube de Macao and F.C. Porto de Macao. In general, football (soccer) has the greatest popularity in Macao, which has a representative international side, Macao national football team. Another common sport is rink hockey, which is often practised by the Portuguese. The national team of Macao is the most powerful of Asia, always participates in the Rink Hockey World Championship in B category and has many Rink Hockey Asian Championship titles. The last Championship was won in Lishui, China, at the 2016 Asian Roller Hockey Championship. Macao also has a basketball team, which qualified for the Asian Basketball Championship twice.
The automobile racing event Macao Grand Prix is arguably the most important international sporting event in Macao, mainly with Formula 3, motorcycle road racing and touring car races.
Since 1989, Macao owns a thoroughbred horse racing track called Taipa Racecourse operated by the Macao Jockey Club. The racecourse has a 15,000 seater grandstand.
Stanley Ho, business magnate, father of Macao gambling industry
Xian Xinghai (spelt as Hsien Hsing-hai during his era), 冼星海 musician and composer during Sino-Japanese War, known work included Yellow River Cantata
Michelle Reis, Hong Kong actress and former Miss Hong Kong
Edmund Ho, business leader, chief executive of Macao SAR
Jenny Tseng, 甄妮 Cantonese pop singer and actress in the 1970s and 1980s
Ming-Na Wen, 温明娜 TV and movie actress, one of the first Chinese-American actresses with a contract role
Foreign relations of Macao
Index of Macao-related articles
List of bridges and tunnels in Macao
Macao Science Center
Outline of Macao
Visa policy of Macao
Visa requirements for Chinese citizens of Macao
Cuiheng New Area, since 31 March 2013, a co-operation pilot zone with Macao
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The Mirror of literature, amusement, and instruction, Volume 7. London: J. Limbird. 1845. p. 262. The Chinese were obliged to restrict the commerce of Portugal to the port of Macau, in 1631. A partnership was then formed with some Chinese dealers in Canton, who were to furnish exports and take delivery of imports at Macau. This scheme did not suit the Chinese; they were dissatisfied with their partners, and speedily dissolved the connection. (Princeton University).
George Bryan Souza (2004). The Survival of Empire: Portuguese Trade and Society in China and the South China Sea 1630–1754 (reprint ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 32. buy this book. soldiers 5000 slaves 20000 Chinese 1643 2000 moradores (Portuguese inhabitants) 1644 40000 total inhabitants 1648 Jesuits record
Stephen Adolphe Wurm; Peter Mühlhäusler; Darrell T. Tryon (1996). Atlas of languages of intercultural communication in the Pacific, Asia and the Americas. Walter de Gruyter. p. 323. buy this book. The Portuguese population of Macau was never very large. Between the period 1601–1669, a typical cross section of the population consisted of about 600 casados, 100–200 other Portuguese, some 5000 slaves and a growing number of Chinese
Zhidong Hao (2011). Macau History and Society (illustrated ed.). Hong Kong University Press. p. 63. buy this book. This is a time when there were most African slaves, about 5100. In comparison there were about 1000 to 2000 during the later Portuguese rule in Macau.
Historical figures of Macau, by CCTV.
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Historical figures of Macau by CCTV
History of the Qing (清史稿)
Indrani Chatterjee; Richard Maxwell Eaton, eds. (2006). Slavery and South Asian history (illustrated ed.). Indiana University Press. p. 238. buy this book. Portuguese,"he concluded;"The Portuguese beat us off from Macau with their slaves."10 The same year as the Dutch ... an English witness recorded that the Portuguese defense was conducted primarily by their African slaves
Middle East and Africa. Taylor & Francis. 1996. p. 544. buy this book. A miscellaneous assemblage of Portuguese soldiers, citizens, African slaves, friars, and Jesuits managed to withstand the attack. Following this defeat, the Dutch made no further attempts to take Macau, although they continued to harass
Christina Miu Bing Cheng (1999). Macau: a cultural Janus (illustrated ed.). Hong Kong University Press. p. 159. buy this book. invaded Macau on 24 June 1622 but was defeated by a handful of Portuguese priests, citizens and African slaves
Steven Bailey (2007). Strolling in Macau: A Visitor's Guide to Macau, Taipa, and Coloane (illustrated ed.). ThingsAsian Press. p. 15. buy this book. On June 24, 1622, a Dutch fleet under Captain Kornelis Reyerszoon assembled a landing force of some 800 armed sailors, a number thought more than sufficient to overpower Macau's relatively weak garrison. Macau's future as a Dutch colony seemed all but assured, since the city's ... still remained under construction and its defenders numbered only about 60 soldiers and 90 civilians, who ranged from Jesuit priests to African slaves
Ruth Simms Hamilton, ed. (2007). Routes of passage: rethinking the African diaspora, Volume 1, Part 1. Volume 1 of African diaspora research. Michigan State University Press. p. 143. buy this book. Jan Coen, who had been sent to establish a Dutch base on the China coast, wrote about the slaves who served the Portuguese so faithfully: "It was they who defeated and drove away our people last year."(the University of California)
Centro de Estudos Históricos Ultramarinos (1968). Studia, Issue 23. Centro de Estudos Históricos Ultramarinos. p. 89. 85, quotes a report from the Dutch governor-general, Coen, in 1623: "The slaves of the Portuguese at Macau served them so well and faithfully, that it was they who defeated and drove away from our people last year".(University of Texas)
Themba Sono (1993). Japan and Africa: the evolution and nature of political, economic and human bonds, 1543–1993. HSRC. p. 23. buy this book. A year later, Captain Coen was still harping on the same theme: 'The slaves of the Portuguese at Macau served them so well and faithfully, that it was they who defeated and drove away our people there last year'.
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Chan, S. S. (2000). The Macau Economy. Publications Centre, University of Macau. buy this book.
Godinho, Jorge (2007). Macau business law and legal system. LexisNexis, Hong Kong. buy this book.
Government Information Bureau (2007). Macau Yearbook 2007. Government Information Bureau of the Macau SAR. buy this book.
Cremer (Editor) (1988). Macau: City of Commerce and Culture. University of Washington Pr. buy this book.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
Berlie, Jean A. (1999). Macao 2000. Oxford University Press editor, Oxford, United Kingdom. buy this book.
Berlie, Jean A. (2000). Macau's overview at the turn of the century. St. John's University Institute of Asian Studies editor, New York.
De Pina-Cabral (2002). Between China and Europe: Person, Culture and Emotion in Macau. Berg Publishers. buy this book.
Eayrs, James (2003). Macau Foreign Policy and Government Guide. International Business Publications, United States. buy this book.
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merged into the Shiziyang
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The basic process for a server-side web templating system: content (from a database), and "presentation specifications" (in a web template), are combined (through the template engine) to mass-produce web documents.
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A web template system is used in web publishing to allow web designers and developers to work with web templates for the automatic generation of custom web pages, such as the results from a search. This allows for reuse of the static elements of a web page, while allowing the dynamic elements to be defined based on the parameters of the web request. Web templates are also used in the creation of static content, providing a basic structure and appearance characteristic for web content. It can be present in content management systems, web application frameworks, and HTML editors.
A web template system is composed of the following:
A template engine: the primary processing element of the system;
Content resource: any of various kinds of input data streams, such as from a relational database, XML files, LDAP directory, and other kinds of local or networked data;
Template resource: web templates specified according to a template language;
The template and content resources are processed and combined by the template engine to mass-produce web documents. For purposes of this article, web documents include any of various output formats for transmission over the web via HTTP, or another Internet protocol.
Motivations and typical uses
Web templates can be used by any individual or organization to set up their website. Once a template is purchased or downloaded, the user will replace all generic information included in the web template with their own personal, organizational or product information. Examples of common uses of Templates are listed below:
Display personal information or daily activities as in a blog.
Sell products online.
Display information about a company or organization.
Display family history.
Display a gallery of photos.
Place music files such as MP3 files on-line for play through a web browser.
Place videos online for public viewing.
To set up a private login area online.
Various agencies and organizations use web template systems for mass-production of content when slower production alternatives prove unfeasible.
For an introductory overview, take a news website as an example. Consider a "static website", where all web pages are static, built by a web designer. It would be very repetitive work to change individual pages as often as the news changes. A typical strategy to automate the web designer's "repetitive work" using Templates could be as follows:
choose a web template system to maintain the website;
group news items with different presentation needs;
specify the "presentation standards" through web templates, for each group of news;
specify a content resource to generate or update the content of each news item.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (March 2012)
Separation of concerns
Main article: Separation of concerns
A common goal among experienced web developers is to develop and deploy applications that are flexible and easily maintainable. An important consideration in reaching this goal is the separation of business logic from presentation logic. Developers use web template systems (with varying degrees of success) to maintain this separation.
For the web designer, when each web page comes from a web template, they can think about a modular web page structured with components that can be modified independently of each other. These components may include a header, footer, global navigation bar (GNB), local navigation bar and content such as articles, images, videos etc.
For programmers the template language offers a more restricted logic, only for presentation adaptations and decisions, not for complex (business model) algorithms.
For other members of the "site team", a template system frees webmasters to focus on technical maintenance, content suppliers to focus on content, and gives all of them more reliability.
Moreover, it has the following advantages to its use:
Ease of design change: presentation variations on templates are "content invariant", meaning a web designer can update the presentation without wider infrastructural preoccupations.Example of this types of websites
Ease of interface localization: menus and other presentation standards are easy to make uniform, for users browsing on the site. Using Breadcrumb (navigation) makes any website more user friendly and flexible.
Possibility to work separately on design and code by different people at the same time. It can be perform while all the codes in a templates are clean design and every block or section of the websites are write with individual commenting system.
Responsive web design is now a mandatory factors for any website. Everything must be perform without any change in responsive design.
Ease of documentation a handy documentation saves more time to understand the whole template and also accelerate the modification process. Professional website designers highly emphasize documentation.
One difficulty in evaluating separation of concerns is the lack of well-defined formalisms to measure when and how well it is actually met. There are, however, fairly standard heuristics that have been borrowed from the domain of software engineering. These include 'inheritance' (based on principles of object-oriented programming); and 'templating and generative programming', (consistent with the principles of MVC separation). The precise difference between the various guidelines is subject to some debate, and some aspects of the different guidelines share a degree of similarity.
One major rationale behind "effective separation" is the need for maximum flexibility in the code and resources dedicated to the presentation logic. Client demands, changing customer preferences and desire to present a "fresh face" for pre-existing content often result in the need to dramatically modify the public appearance of web content without disrupting the underlying infrastructure as little as possible.
The distinction between "presentation" (front end) and "business logic" (infrastructure) is usually an important one, because:
the presentation source code language may differ from other code assets
the production process for the application may require the work to be done at separate times and locations
different workers have different skill sets, and presentation skills do not always coincide with skills for coding business logic
code assets are easier to maintain and more readable when disparate components are kept separate and loosely coupled
Not all potential users of web templates have the willingness and ability to hire developers to design a system for their needs. Additionally, some may wish to use the web but have limited or no technical proficiency. For these reasons, a number of developers and vendors have released web templates specifically for reuse by non-technical people. Although web template reusability is also important for even highly skilled and technically experienced developers, it is especially critical to those who rely on simplicity and "ready-made" web solutions.
Such "ready-made" web templates are sometimes free, and easily made by an individual domestically. However, specialized web templates are sometimes sold online. Although there are numerous commercial sites that offer web templates for a licensing fee, there are also free and "open-source" sources as well.
With the model typically held in a relational database, the remaining components of the MVC architecture are the control and view. In the simplest of systems these two are not separated. However, adapting the separation of concerns principle one can completely decouple the relationships.
For example, the view template may look like this:
A web browser and web server are a client–server architecture; often a web cache is also used to improve performance. Overall, there are five types of templating systems, classified based on when assembly happens - placeholders are substituted for variable information (such as names, addresses, and product info) and sub-templates:
Server-side - run-time substitution happens on the web server
Client-side - run-time substitution happens in the web browser
Edge-side - run-time substitution happens on a proxy between web server and browser
Outside server - static web pages are produced offline and uploaded to the web server; no run-time substitution
Distributed - run-time substitution happens on multiple servers
Template languages may be:
Embedded or event-driven.
Simple, iterable, programmable, or complex.
Defined by a consortium, privately defined, or de facto defined by an open implementation. Ownership influences the stability and credibility of a specification. However, in most jurisdictions, language specification cannot be copyrighted, so control is seldom absolute.
The source code of the template engine can be proprietary or open source.
Many template systems are a component of a larger programming platform or framework. They are referred to as the "platform's template system". Some template systems have the option of substituting a different template language or engine.
Programming languages such as Perl, Ruby, C, and Java support template processing either natively, or through add-on libraries and modules. JavaServer Pages (JSP), PHP, and Active Server Pages (ASP with VBScript, JScript or other languages) are examples, themselves, of web template engines. These technologies are typically used in server-side templating systems, but could be adapted for use on a "edge-side" proxy or for static page generation.
Static site generators
Outside server template system architecture.
HTML editors often use web template systems to produce only static web pages. These can be viewed as a ready-made web design, used to mass-produce "cookie-cutter" websites for rapid deployment. They also commonly include themes in place of CSS styles. In general, the template language is to be used only with the editor's software.
FrontPage and Dreamweaver were once the most popular editors with template sub-system. A Flash web template uses Macromedia Flash to create visually interactive sites.
HTML authoring. Embedded iterable language.
HTML authoring. Embedded iterable language.
Website Meta Language
Many server-side template systems have the option to publish the output pages on the server, where the published pages will be static. It is a common feature on content management systems, like Vignette. But this does not have to be considered an out-server generation.
In the majority of the cases, this "publish option" doesn't interfere with the template system, and it can be made by external software, as Wget.
Server-side template system
Server-side dynamic pages began to be generated by templates with pre-existent software adapted for this task. This early software was the preprocessors and macro languages, adapted for the web use, running on CGI. Next, a simple but relevant technology was the direct execution made on extension modules, started with SSI.
Many template systems are typically used as server-side template systems:
Public. Embedded complex language.
Use the "Django template language".
Public. Part of JavaServer Faces
Ruby or Other
Public. Embedded complex language.
Proprietary. Interpreted Programming Language and Server
Embedded simple language, if exclude exec directive.
Public. Embedded complex language.
Public. Embedded complex language.
Template Attribute Language (TAL)
Zope, Python, Java, Perl, PHP, XSLT
Public; a.k.a. Zope Page Templates (ZPT); see also TAL Expression Syntax (TALES), Macro Expansion TAL (METAL)
Public. Supports multiple template languages (JSP, Velocity, Freemarker, Mustache) from various frameworks (servlet, portlets, struts, spring).
Public. "As of 2008-02-20, this project is no longer under active development."
Public. Embedded iterable language.
Public. Embedded iterable language.
Use the WebObjects Builder as engine.
Public. Use VTL - Velocity Template Language.
Commercial solution. Embedded complex language.
XSLT (standard language)
Any with an XSLT parser
Standard. Event-driven programmable language.
XQuery (standard language)
Any with an XQuery parser
Standard. Embedded programmable language.
Technically, the methodology of embedding programming languages within HTML (or XML, etc.), used in many "server-side included script languages" are also templates. All of them are Embedded complex languages.
Active Server Pages (ASP)
ColdFusion Markup Language (CFM)
Public (Lucee, Railo, OpenBD). Proprietary (Adobe ColdFusion).
JavaServer Pages (JSP)
Public, Java platform.
There are also preprocessors used as server-side template engines. Examples:
Public. Embedded iterable language.
Public. Embedded complex language.
Edge-Side template and inclusion systems. “Edge-side” refers to web servers that reside in the space between the client (browser) and the originating server. They are often referred to as “reverse-proxy” servers. These servers are generally tasked with reducing the load and traffic on originating servers by caching content such as images and page fragments, and delivering this to the browser in an efficient manner.
Client-side and distributed (decentralized) template system.
Many web browsers can apply an XSLT stylesheet to XML data that transforms the data into an XHTML document, thereby providing template functionality in the browser itself.
The most simple form is transclusions (HTML frames). In other cases dynamic web pages are needed.
Rich Internet application
Comparison of web template engines
Text substitution macros
Template (file format)
UIML (User Interface Markup Language)
XSLT (Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations)
"Template engine". phpwact.org wiki. Archived from the original on December 4, 2012 2013.
Parr, Terence John (2004). Enforcing strict model-view separation in template engines. Proceedings of the 13th international conference on World Wide Web. buy this book.
Paragon Corporation (2003-07-19). "Separation of Business Logic from Presentation Logic in Web Applications".
MVC vs OOP
MacDonald, Matthew (2015). Creating a Website: The Missing Manual. Chapter 8 > Putting the Same Content on Multiple Pages > Web Templates > Note box: O'Reilly Media, Inc. buy this book 2016.