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  • Macau

    Fisherman's Wharf

  • Macau

    Museum of Macau

  • Macau

    Dom Pedro V theatre

  • Macau

    A-Ma Temple

  • Cuisine

    Local cooking in Macao consists of a blend of Cantonese and Portuguese cuisines. Many unique dishes resulted from the spice blends that the wives of Portuguese sailors used in an attempt to replicate European dishes. Its ingredients and seasonings include those from Europe, South America, Africa, India, and Southeast Asia, as well as local Chinese ingredients. Typically, Macanese food is seasoned with various spices and flavours including turmeric, coconut milk, cinnamon and bacalhau, giving special aromas and tastes. Famous dishes include minchi, capella, galinha à Portuguesa, galinha à Africana (African chicken), bacalhau, Macanese chili shrimps and stir-fry curry crab. Pork chop bun, ginger milk and Portuguese-style egg tart are also very popular in Macao.

    Sports

    Macau
    2008 Macao F3 Grand Prix in progress

    Macao has its own professional football league, the Campeonato da 1ª Divisão do Futebol, where the Big Three professional football clubs of Portugal have their own branches: S.L. Benfica de Macao, Sporting Clube de Macao and F.C. Porto de Macao. In general, football (soccer) has the greatest popularity in Macao, which has a representative international side, Macao national football team. Another common sport is rink hockey, which is often practised by the Portuguese. The national team of Macao is the most powerful of Asia, always participates in the Rink Hockey World Championship in B category and has many Rink Hockey Asian Championship titles. The last Championship was won in Lishui, China, at the 2016 Asian Roller Hockey Championship. Macao also has a basketball team, which qualified for the Asian Basketball Championship twice.

    The automobile racing event Macao Grand Prix is arguably the most important international sporting event in Macao, mainly with Formula 3, motorcycle road racing and touring car races.

    Since 1989, Macao owns a thoroughbred horse racing track called Taipa Racecourse operated by the Macao Jockey Club. The racecourse has a 15,000 seater grandstand.

    Notable people

    See also

    Notes

    References

    Citations

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    24. Joseph Timothy Haydn (1885). Dictionary of dates, and universal reference. [With] (18 ed.). Oxford University. p. 522. MACAO (in Quang-tong, S. China) was given to the Portuguese as a commercial station in 1586 (in return for their assistance against pirates), subject to an annual tribute, which was remitted in 1863. Here Camoens composed part of the "Lusiad." 
    25. The Mirror of literature, amusement, and instruction, Volume 7. London: J. Limbird. 1845. p. 262. The Chinese were obliged to restrict the commerce of Portugal to the port of Macau, in 1631. A partnership was then formed with some Chinese dealers in Canton, who were to furnish exports and take delivery of imports at Macau. This scheme did not suit the Chinese; they were dissatisfied with their partners, and speedily dissolved the connection.  (Princeton University).
    26. George Bryan Souza (2004). The Survival of Empire: Portuguese Trade and Society in China and the South China Sea 1630–1754 (reprint ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 32.  buy this book. soldiers 5000 slaves 20000 Chinese 1643 2000 moradores (Portuguese inhabitants) 1644 40000 total inhabitants 1648 Jesuits record 
    27. Stephen Adolphe Wurm; Peter Mühlhäusler; Darrell T. Tryon (1996). Atlas of languages of intercultural communication in the Pacific, Asia and the Americas. Walter de Gruyter. p. 323.  buy this book. The Portuguese population of Macau was never very large. Between the period 1601–1669, a typical cross section of the population consisted of about 600 casados, 100–200 other Portuguese, some 5000 slaves and a growing number of Chinese 
    28. Zhidong Hao (2011). Macau History and Society (illustrated ed.). Hong Kong University Press. p. 63.  buy this book. This is a time when there were most African slaves, about 5100. In comparison there were about 1000 to 2000 during the later Portuguese rule in Macau. 
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    34. Middle East and Africa. Taylor & Francis. 1996. p. 544.  buy this book. A miscellaneous assemblage of Portuguese soldiers, citizens, African slaves, friars, and Jesuits managed to withstand the attack. Following this defeat, the Dutch made no further attempts to take Macau, although they continued to harass 
    35. Christina Miu Bing Cheng (1999). Macau: a cultural Janus (illustrated ed.). Hong Kong University Press. p. 159.  buy this book. invaded Macau on 24 June 1622 but was defeated by a handful of Portuguese priests, citizens and African slaves 
    36. Steven Bailey (2007). Strolling in Macau: A Visitor's Guide to Macau, Taipa, and Coloane (illustrated ed.). ThingsAsian Press. p. 15.  buy this book. On June 24, 1622, a Dutch fleet under Captain Kornelis Reyerszoon assembled a landing force of some 800 armed sailors, a number thought more than sufficient to overpower Macau's relatively weak garrison. Macau's future as a Dutch colony seemed all but assured, since the city's ... still remained under construction and its defenders numbered only about 60 soldiers and 90 civilians, who ranged from Jesuit priests to African slaves 
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    38. Centro de Estudos Históricos Ultramarinos (1968). Studia, Issue 23. Centro de Estudos Históricos Ultramarinos. p. 89. 85, quotes a report from the Dutch governor-general, Coen, in 1623: "The slaves of the Portuguese at Macau served them so well and faithfully, that it was they who defeated and drove away from our people last year". (University of Texas)
    39. Themba Sono (1993). Japan and Africa: the evolution and nature of political, economic and human bonds, 1543–1993. HSRC. p. 23.  buy this book. A year later, Captain Coen was still harping on the same theme: 'The slaves of the Portuguese at Macau served them so well and faithfully, that it was they who defeated and drove away our people there last year'. 
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    Sources

    Books

    Further reading

    External links

    Government
    General information
    Travel

    113°33′E / 22.167; 113.550

    Source of information: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - Disclaimer.

    Website template

    Website template
    The basic process for a server-side web templating system: content (from a database), and "presentation specifications" (in a web template), are combined (through the template engine) to mass-produce web documents.

    A web template system is used in web publishing to allow web designers and developers to work with web templates for the automatic generation of custom web pages, such as the results from a search. This allows for reuse of the static elements of a web page, while allowing the dynamic elements to be defined based on the parameters of the web request. Web templates are also used in the creation of static content, providing a basic structure and appearance characteristic for web content. It can be present in content management systems, web application frameworks, and HTML editors.

    Overview

    A web template system is composed of the following:

    The template and content resources are processed and combined by the template engine to mass-produce web documents. For purposes of this article, web documents include any of various output formats for transmission over the web via HTTP, or another Internet protocol.

    Motivations and typical uses

    Applications

    Web templates can be used by any individual or organization to set up their website. Once a template is purchased or downloaded, the user will replace all generic information included in the web template with their own personal, organizational or product information. Examples of common uses of Templates are listed below:

    Mass-production

    Various agencies and organizations use web template systems for mass-production of content when slower production alternatives prove unfeasible.[citation needed]

    For an introductory overview, take a news website as an example. Consider a "static website", where all web pages are static, built by a web designer. It would be very repetitive work to change individual pages as often as the news changes. A typical strategy to automate the web designer's "repetitive work" using Templates could be as follows:

    1. choose a web template system to maintain the website;
    2. group news items with different presentation needs;
    3. specify the "presentation standards" through web templates, for each group of news;
    4. specify a content resource to generate or update the content of each news item.

    Style standardization

    Separation of concerns

    A common goal among experienced web developers is to develop and deploy applications that are flexible and easily maintainable. An important consideration in reaching this goal is the separation of business logic from presentation logic. Developers use web template systems (with varying degrees of success) to maintain this separation.

    For the web designer, when each web page comes from a web template, they can think about a modular web page structured with components that can be modified independently of each other. These components may include a header, footer, global navigation bar (GNB), local navigation bar and content such as articles, images, videos etc.

    For programmers the template language offers a more restricted logic, only for presentation adaptations and decisions, not for complex (business model) algorithms.[citation needed]

    For other members of the "site team", a template system frees webmasters to focus on technical maintenance, content suppliers to focus on content, and gives all of them more reliability.

    Moreover, it has the following advantages to its use:

    One difficulty in evaluating separation of concerns is the lack of well-defined formalisms to measure when and how well it is actually met. There are, however, fairly standard heuristics that have been borrowed from the domain of software engineering. These include 'inheritance' (based on principles of object-oriented programming); and 'templating and generative programming', (consistent with the principles of MVC separation). The precise difference between the various guidelines is subject to some debate, and some aspects of the different guidelines share a degree of similarity.

    Flexible presentation

    One major rationale behind "effective separation" is the need for maximum flexibility in the code and resources dedicated to the presentation logic. Client demands, changing customer preferences and desire to present a "fresh face" for pre-existing content often result in the need to dramatically modify the public appearance of web content without disrupting the underlying infrastructure as little as possible.

    The distinction between "presentation" (front end) and "business logic" (infrastructure) is usually an important one, because:

    Reusability

    Not all potential users of web templates have the willingness and ability to hire developers to design a system for their needs. Additionally, some may wish to use the web but have limited or no technical proficiency. For these reasons, a number of developers and vendors have released web templates specifically for reuse by non-technical people. Although web template reusability is also important for even highly skilled and technically experienced developers, it is especially critical to those who rely on simplicity and "ready-made" web solutions.

    Such "ready-made" web templates are sometimes free, and easily made by an individual domestically. However, specialized web templates are sometimes sold online. Although there are numerous commercial sites that offer web templates for a licensing fee, there are also free and "open-source" sources as well.

    Example

    With the model typically held in a relational database, the remaining components of the MVC architecture are the control and view. In the simplest of systems these two are not separated. However, adapting the separation of concerns principle one can completely decouple the relationships.

    For example, the view template may look like this:

    <!DOCTYPE html>
       <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
       <head><title>Sites</title></head>
       <body><h1 data-xp="title"><!-- placeholder --></h1></body>
    </html>
    

    Then the control template will load the view and then can use xpath addressing[original research?] to insert components from a database, for instance:

     <?php
    $doc = new DOMDocument;
    $doc->preserveWhiteSpace = false;
    $doc->Load('view.html');
    $titlenode = $doc->createTextNode("Like this");
    $xpath = new DOMXPath($doc);
    $xpath->registerNamespace("h","http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"); 
    $query="//h:*[@data-xp='title']/comment()";
    $entries = $xpath->query($query);
    foreach ($entries as $entry) { $entry->parentNode->replaceChild($titlenode, $entry); }
    echo $doc->saveXML();
    ?>
    

    Kinds of template systems

    A web browser and web server are a client–server architecture; often a web cache is also used to improve performance. Overall, there are five types of templating systems, classified based on when assembly happens - placeholders are substituted for variable information (such as names, addresses, and product info) and sub-templates:

    Template languages may be:

    The source code of the template engine can be proprietary or open source.

    Many template systems are a component of a larger programming platform or framework. They are referred to as the "platform's template system". Some template systems have the option of substituting a different template language or engine.[citation needed]

    Programming languages such as Perl, Ruby, C, and Java support template processing either natively, or through add-on libraries and modules. JavaServer Pages (JSP), PHP, and Active Server Pages (ASP with VBScript, JScript or other languages) are examples, themselves, of web template engines. These technologies are typically used in server-side templating systems, but could be adapted for use on a "edge-side" proxy or for static page generation.

    Static site generators

    Website template
    Outside server template system architecture.

    HTML editors often use web template systems to produce only static web pages. These can be viewed as a ready-made web design, used to mass-produce "cookie-cutter" websites for rapid deployment. They also commonly include themes in place of CSS styles. In general, the template language is to be used only with the editor's software.

    FrontPage and Dreamweaver were once the most popular editors with template sub-system. A Flash web template uses Macromedia Flash to create visually interactive sites.

    System label/name Platform/editor Notes
    Dreamweaver Macromedia HTML authoring. Embedded iterable language.
    Contribute Macromedia Client authoring.
    Flash Macromedia Flash authoring.
    FrontPage Microsoft HTML authoring. Embedded iterable language.
    Nvu Linux/Nvu HTML authoring.
    Website Meta Language Unix-like

    Many server-side template systems have the option to publish the output pages on the server, where the published pages will be static. It is a common feature on content management systems, like Vignette. But this does not have to be considered an out-server generation.

    In the majority of the cases, this "publish option" doesn't interfere with the template system, and it can be made by external software, as Wget.

    Server-side systems

    Website template
    Server-side template system

    Server-side dynamic pages began to be generated by templates with pre-existent software adapted for this task. This early software was the preprocessors and macro languages, adapted for the web use, running on CGI. Next, a simple but relevant technology was the direct execution made on extension modules, started with SSI.

    Many template systems are typically used as server-side template systems:

    System label/name Platform/framework Notes
    CheetahTemplate Python Public. Embedded complex language.
    Django Python Use the "Django template language".
    FreeMarker Java Public.
    Facelets Java EE Public. Part of JavaServer Faces
    Genshi Python Public
    Haml Ruby or Other Public.
    Hamlets Java Public.
    Jinja2 Python Public. Embedded complex language.
    Kid Python
    Lasso LassoSoft, LLC Proprietary. Interpreted Programming Language and Server
    Mustache ActionScript, C++, Clojure, CoffeeScript, ColdFusion, D, Erlang, Fantom, Go, Java, server-side JavaScript, Lua, .NET, Objective-C, ooc, Perl, PHP, Python, Ruby, Scala, Tcl Public.
    Basic Server Side Includes (SSI) The basic directives fix a "standard". Embedded simple language, if exclude exec directive.
    Smarty PHP Public. Embedded complex language.
    Template Toolkit Perl Public. Embedded complex language.
    Template Attribute Language (TAL) Zope, Python, Java, Perl, PHP, XSLT Public; a.k.a. Zope Page Templates (ZPT); see also TAL Expression Syntax (TALES), Macro Expansion TAL (METAL)
    Tiles Java Public. Supports multiple template languages (JSP, Velocity, Freemarker, Mustache) from various frameworks (servlet, portlets, struts, spring).
    Thymeleaf Java Public.
    Topsite Python Public. "As of 2008-02-20, this project is no longer under active development."
    PHPlib PHPlib Public. Embedded iterable language.
    WebMacro Java Public. Embedded iterable language.
    WebObjects Java Use the WebObjects Builder as engine.
    Velocity (Jakarta/Apache) Java Public. Use VTL - Velocity Template Language.
    Vignette Proprietary. Commercial solution. Embedded complex language.
    VlibTemplate PHP Public.
    XSLT (standard language) Any with an XSLT parser Standard. Event-driven programmable language.
    XQuery (standard language) Any with an XQuery parser Standard. Embedded programmable language.

    Technically, the methodology of embedding programming languages within HTML (or XML, etc.), used in many "server-side included script languages" are also templates. All of them are Embedded complex languages.

    System label/name Notes
    Active Server Pages (ASP) Proprietary (Microsoft platform). See also: VBScript, Javascript, PerlScript, etc. extensions for ASP.
    eRuby Public (Ruby).
    ColdFusion Markup Language (CFM) Public (Lucee, Railo, OpenBD). Proprietary (Adobe ColdFusion).
    JavaServer Pages (JSP) Public, Java platform.
    Active Perl Public.
    PHP Public.
    OpenACS Public (Tcl).

    There are also preprocessors used as server-side template engines. Examples:

    Preprocessor Notes
    C preprocessor Public. Embedded iterable language.
    M4 Public. Embedded complex language.

    Edge-side systems

    Edge-Side template and inclusion systems. “Edge-side” refers to web servers that reside in the space between the client (browser) and the originating server. They are often referred to as “reverse-proxy” servers. These servers are generally tasked with reducing the load and traffic on originating servers by caching content such as images and page fragments, and delivering this to the browser in an efficient manner.

    Basic Edge Side Includes (ESI) is an SSI-like language. ESI has been implemented for content delivery networks. The ESI template language may also be implemented in web browsers using JavaScript and Ajax, or via a browser "plug-in".

    Client-side systems

    Website template
    Client-side and distributed (decentralized) template system.

    Many web browsers can apply an XSLT stylesheet to XML data that transforms the data into an XHTML document, thereby providing template functionality in the browser itself.
    Other systems implement template functionality in the browser using JavaScript or another client-side scripting language, including:

    Distributed systems

    The most simple form is transclusions (HTML frames). In other cases dynamic web pages are needed.

    Examples:

    See also

    Concepts:
    • Boilerplate code
    • Bytecode
    • Comparison of web template engines
    • Layout engine
    • Text substitution macros
    • Preprocessor
    • Template processor
    • Template (file format)
    • Transclusion
    • Virtual machine
          Standards:
    • UIML (User Interface Markup Language)
    • XSLT (Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations)
          Software:
    • CodeCharge Studio
    • Jekyll

    References

    1. "Template engine". phpwact.org wiki. Archived from the original on December 4, 2012 2013. 
    2. Parr, Terence John (2004). Enforcing strict model-view separation in template engines. Proceedings of the 13th international conference on World Wide Web.  buy this book. 
    3. Template:Envato
    4. [1]
    5. Paragon Corporation (2003-07-19). "Separation of Business Logic from Presentation Logic in Web Applications". 
    6. MVC vs OOP
    7. MacDonald, Matthew (2015). Creating a Website: The Missing Manual. Chapter 8 > Putting the Same Content on Multiple Pages > Web Templates > Note box: O'Reilly Media, Inc.  buy this book 2016. 
    8. "{{mustache}}" 2013. 
    9. jodyburns. "Topsite Templating System" 2013. 
    10. Website, Templates (2013). Wordpress Website Templates. 

    External links

    Source of information: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - Disclaimer.