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"Macao" redirects here. For other uses of "Macau" or "Macao", see Macau (disambiguation).
Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China
中華人民共和國澳門特別行政區 Jūng'wàh Yàhnmàhn Guhng'wòhgwok Oumún Dahkbiht Hàhngjingkēui (Cantonese) Região Administrativa Especial de Macau da República Popular da China(Portuguese)
"March of the Volunteers"
Marcha dos Voluntários
Location of Macau within China
Special administrative region
Ethnic groups (2014)
Devolved parliamentarymulti-party system within socialist republic
• Chief Executive
• Administration and Justice Secretary
• Economy and Finance Secretary
• Security Secretary
Wong Sio Chak
• Assembly President
Ho Iat Seng
• Court President
Sam Hou Fai
• National People's Congress
12 deputies (of 2,924)
Autonomy within the People's Republic of China
• Portuguese settlement
• Sino-Portuguese Treaty of Peking
1 December 1887
• Transfer of sovereignty
20 December 1999
115.3 km (44.5 sq mi)
• Water (%)
• 2016 census
21,411/km (55,454.2/sq mi) (1st)
$65.383 billion (93rd)
• Per capita
$44.803 billion (83rd)
• Per capita
0.905 very high · 17th
Macanese pataca (MOP)
Macau Standard Time (UTC+8)
Drives on the
ISO 3166 code
Cantonese is the de facto standard.
For all government use, documents written using Traditional Chinese characters are authoritative over ones inscribed with Simplified Chinese characters. Portuguese shares equal status with Chinese in all official proceedings.
The UN does not calculate the HDI of Macau. The government of Macau calculates its own HDI.
Macao Special Administrative Region
澳門特別行政區 (or 澳門特區)
澳门特别行政区 (or 澳门特区)
Àomén Tèbié Xíngzhèngqū (Àomén Tèqū)
aumen dehbih ghantsenchiu
Aumun Tetpiet hangzinki
Oumún Dahkbiht Hàhngjing Keūi
[ōu.mǔːn tɐ̀k̚.piːt̚ hɐ̏ŋ.tsēŋ kʰɵ́y]
Ou3mun2 Dak6bit6 Hang4zing3 Keoi1
Oumun Degbid Hengjing Kêu
Ò-mn̂g Te̍k-pia̍t Hêng-chèng-khu
Região Administrativa Especial de Macau
(for "Macau Special Administrative Region")
pronounced [ʁɨʒiˈɐ̃w̃ ɐdminiʃtɾɐˈtivɐ (ɨ)ʃpɨsiˈaɫ dɨ mɐˈkaw]
Macau (/məˈkaʊ/ (listen)), also spelled Macao and officially the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory on the western side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia. Macau is bordered by the city of Zhuhai in Mainland China to the north and the Pearl River Delta to the east and south. Hong Kong lies about 64 kilometres (40 mi) to its east across the Delta. With a population of 650,900 living in an area of 30.5 km (11.8 sq mi), it is the most densely populated region in the world. A former Portuguese colony, it was returned to Chinese sovereignty on 20 December 1999.
Macau was administered by the Portuguese Empire and its inheritor states from the mid-16th century until late 1999, when it constituted the last remaining European colony in Asia. Portuguese traders first settled in Macau in the 1550s. In 1557, Macau was leased to Portugal from Ming China as a trading port. The Portuguese Empire administered the city under Chinese authority and sovereignty until 1887, when Macau became a colony through a mutual agreement between the two countries. Sovereignty over Macau was transferred back to China on 20 December 1999. The Joint Declaration on the Question of Macau and Macau Basic Law stipulate that Macau operate with a high degree of autonomy until at least 2049, fifty years after the transfer.
Under the policy of "one country, two systems", the Central People's Government of the People's Republic of China is responsible for military defense and foreign affairs while Macau maintains its own legal system, public security force, monetary system, customs policy and immigration policy. Macau participates in international organizations and events that do not require members to possess national sovereignty.
Macau is a resort city in Southern China, known for its casinos and luxury hotels. Its gaming revenue has been the world's largest since 2006, with the economy heavily dependent on gaming and tourism. According to The World Factbook, Macau has the fourth highest life expectancy in the world. Moreover, it has a very high Human Development Index, ranking 17th in the world as of 2016[update]. Macau is among the world's richest regions and its GDP per capita by purchasing power parity was higher than that of any country in the world, according to the World Bank.
It is widely known as the pre-eminent gambling (or gaming) capital of the world, greatly dwarfing other gambling centers/cities.
Main article: Names of Macau
The present Chinese name (Chinese: 澳門; pinyin: Àomén; Cantonese Yale: Oumún) means "Bay Outlet". Macau is otherwise known in Chinese as Haojing (濠鏡, literally "Moat Mirror") or Jinghai (鏡海, literally "Mirror Sea"). The name Macau is thought to be derived from the A-Ma Temple (Chinese: 媽閣廟; pinyin: Māgé Miào; Cantonese Yale: Māgok Miuh), a temple built in 1448 dedicated to Mazu, the goddess of seafarers and fishermen. More precisely, the name Macau corresponds to the Chinese name "媽港" (pinyin: Māgǎng), meaning "Mazu Harbor", and referring to the waters adjacent to the Ama Temple.
Main articles: History of Macau, Portuguese Macau, and Transfer of sovereignty over Macau
Ruins of São Paulo Cathedral, built in 1602 and destroyed by fire in 1835
The history of Macau is traced back to the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC), when the region now called Macau came under the jurisdiction of Panyu County, Nanhai Prefecture (modern Guangdong). The first recorded Chinese inhabitants of the area were people seeking refuge in Macau from invading Mongols during the Southern Song. Under the Ming dynasty (1368–1644), fishermen migrated to Macau from Guangdong and Fujian. The Macau native people were Tanka boat people.
Macau did not develop as a major settlement until the Portuguese arrived in the 16th century. In 1513, Jorge Álvares became the first Portuguese to land in China. In 1535, Portuguese traders obtained the rights to anchor ships in Macau's harbours and to carry out trading activities, though not the right to stay onshore. Around 1552–1553, they obtained temporary permission to erect storage sheds onshore, in order to dry out goods drenched by sea water; they soon built rudimentary stone houses around the area now called Nam Van.
In 1557, the Portuguese established a permanent settlement in Macau, paying an annual rent of 500 taels (18.9 kilograms / 41.6 pounds) of silver. The Portuguese continued to pay an annual tribute up to 1863 in order to stay in Macau.
By 1564, Portugal commanded western trade with India, Japan, and China. In 1631 the Chinese restricted Portuguese commerce in China to the port of Macau.
During the 17th century, some 5,000 slaves lived in Macau, in addition to 2,000 Portuguese and 20,000 Chinese.
As more Portuguese settled in Macau to engage in trade, they made demands for self-administration; but this was not achieved until the 1840s. In 1576, Pope Gregory XIII established the Roman Catholic Diocese of Macau. In 1583, the Portuguese in Macau were permitted to form a Senate to handle various issues concerning their social and economic affairs under strict supervision of the Chinese authority, but there was no transfer of sovereignty.
Macau, c. 1870
Macau prospered as a port but it was the target of repeated failed attempts by the Dutch to conquer it in the 17th century. On 24 June 1622, the Dutch attacked Macau in the Battle of Macau, in the hope of turning it into a Dutch possession. The Portuguese repulsed their attack and the Dutch never tried to conquer Macau again. The majority of the defenders were African slaves, with only a few Portuguese soldiers and priests. Captain Kornelis Reyerszoon was commander of the 800-strong Dutch invasion force.
The grieving Dutch Governor Jan Pz. Coen said after the defeat that "The slaves of the Portuguese at Macau served them so well and faithfully, that it was they who defeated and drove away our people there last year", and "Our people saw very few Portuguese" during the battle.
Following the First Opium War (1839–42), Portugal occupied the empty islands of Taipa and Coloane in 1851 and 1864 respectively. On 1 December 1887, the Qing and Portuguese governments signed the Sino-Portuguese Treaty of Peking, under which China ceded the right of "perpetual occupation and government of Macau by Portugal" in compliance with the statements of the Protocol of Lisbon. In return, Macau Government would cooperate with Hong Kong's smuggling trade in Indian opium and China would profit from imposing customs taxes. Portugal was also obliged "never to alienate Macau without previous agreement with China", therefore ensuring that negotiation between Portugal and France (regarding a possible exchange of Macau and Portuguese Guinea with the French Congo) or with other countries would not go forward – so that the British commercial interests would be secured; Macau officially became a territory under Portuguese administration.
In 1928, after the Qing dynasty had been overthrown following the Xinhai Revolution, the Kuomintang (KMT) government officially notified Portugal that it would abrogate the Treaty of Amity and Commerce; the two powers signed a new Sino-Portuguese Friendship and Trade Treaty in place of the abrogated treaty. Changing only a few provisions concerning tariff principles and matters relating to business affairs, the new treaty did not alter the sovereignty of Macau and Portuguese government of Macau remained unchanged.
During World War II, unlike Portuguese Timor, which was occupied by the Japanese in 1942 along with Dutch Timor, the Japanese respected Portuguese neutrality in Macau, but only up to a point. Macau enjoyed a brief period of economic prosperity as the only neutral port in South China after the Japanese had occupied Guangzhou and Hong Kong. In August 1943, Japanese troops seized the British steamer Sian in Macau and killed about 20 guards. The next month they demanded the installation of Japanese "advisors" under the threat of overt military occupation. The result was that a virtual Japanese protectorate was created over Macau.
The "O Porto Interior" in Macau, c. 1900
When it was discovered that "neutral" Macau was planning to sell aviation fuel to Japan, aircraft from the USS Enterprise bombed and strafed the hangar of the Naval Aviation Centre on 16 January 1945 to destroy the fuel. American air raids on targets in Macau were also made on 25 February and 11 June 1945. Following Portuguese government protests, in 1950 the United States paid US$20,255,952 to the government of Portugal.
Between the end of the Pacific War and the establishment of the People's Republic of China, Macau served as a safe haven for refugees of the Chinese Civil War.
After the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, the Beijing government declared the Sino-Portuguese Treaty invalid as an "unequal treaty" imposed by foreigners on China. However, Beijing was not ready to settle the treaty question, allowing the maintenance of "the status quo" until a more appropriate time.
Influenced by the Cultural Revolution in mainland China and by general dissatisfaction with Portuguese government, riots broke out in Macau in 1966. In the most serious, the so-called 12-3 incident, 6 people were killed and more than 200 people were injured. On 28 January 1967, the Portuguese government issued a formal apology by means of an "admission of guilt".
The Peoples Liberation Army enters Macau for the first time
Shortly after Portugal's 1974 Carnation Revolution, which overthrew the Estado Novo dictatorship, the new government determined it would relinquish all its overseas possessions. In 1976, Lisbon redefined Macau as a "Chinese territory under Portuguese administration" and granted it a large measure of administrative, financial, and economic autonomy. Three years later, Portugal and China agreed to regard Macau as "a Chinese territory under [temporary] Portuguese administration". The Chinese and Portuguese governments commenced negotiations on the question of Macau in June 1986. The two signed the Sino-Portuguese Joint Declaration the next year, making Macau one of the special administrative regions of China.
Transfer of sovereignty and SAR status
The Chinese government assumed formal sovereignty over Macau on 20 December 1999 as a special administrative region (SAR) after over 400 years of Portuguese colonial rule. This event also marked the end of the Portuguese Empire and European colonialism in Asia. The economy since then has continued to prosper with the sustained growth of tourism from mainland China and the construction of new casinos.
Government and politics
Main articles: Politics of Macau, Legislative Assembly of Macau, Legal system of Macau, and Civic and Municipal Affairs Bureau
Macau Government Headquarters
The Sino-Portuguese Joint Declaration and Macau Basic Law, Macau's constitution, promulgated by China's National People's Congress in 1993, specify that Macau's social and economic system, lifestyle, rights, and freedoms are to remain unchanged for at least 50 years after the transfer of sovereignty to China in 1999. Under the principle of "one country, two systems", Macau enjoys a high degree of autonomy in all areas except defence and foreign affairs. Macau officials, rather than PRC officials, run Macau through the exercise of separate executive, legislative, and judicial powers, as well as the right to final adjudication. Macau maintains its own currency (the Macanese pataca), customs territory, immigration and border controls and police force.
The government in Macau is headed by the Chief Executive of Macau, who is appointed by the central government upon the recommendation of an election committee, whose three hundred members are nominated by corporate and community bodies. The recommendation is made by an election within the committee. The chief executive's cabinet is made up of five policy secretaries and two commissariats and is advised by the Executive Council of Macau, which has between seven and eleven members. Edmund Ho, a community leader and former banker, was the first chief executive of the Macau SAR, replacing General Vasco Rocha Vieira at midnight on 20 December 1999. Fernando Chui is the current Chief Executive. The chief executive and the cabinet have their offices in the Macau Government Headquarters, located in the area of São Lourenço.
Legislative Assembly of Macau
The legislative organ of the territory is the Legislative Assembly, a 33-member body comprising 14 directly elected members, 12 indirectly elected members representing functional constituencies and seven members appointed by the chief executive. Any permanent residents at or over 18 years of age are eligible to vote in direct elections. Indirect election is limited to organizations registered as "corporate voters" and a 300-member election committee drawn from broad regional groupings, municipal organizations, and central government bodies.
In February 2009, the Legislative Assembly passed the Macau national security law based on a withdrawn security legislation previously introduced in Hong Kong. Democracy advocates feared that the bill's excessively broad scope could lead to abuses, a concern which has been heightened after a number of prominent supporters of democracy in Hong Kong were denied entry into Macau in the run-up to the bill's passage.
Main article: Legal system of Macau
Seat of the Superior Tribunal of Macau
The original framework of the legal system, based largely on the Law of Portugal, the Portuguese civil law system, was preserved after 1999. The territory has its own independent judicial system with a High Court independent of both the local Government and the Central People's Government of the People's Republic of China. Judges are selected by a committee and appointed by the chief executive. Foreign judges may serve on the courts.
The judicial organs of the Macau are the Public Ministry; the Courts of First Instance, which are subdivided into the Basic Judicial Court and Administrative Court; the Court of the Second Instance and the Court of Final Appeal.
The legal system of Macau is essentially based on the model of Portuguese law, and is thus part of the family of continental legal systems (Roman-Germanic). From 1987 to 1999, this legal system was completely modernized with a view to the transfer of sovereignty from Macau to the People's Republic of China. Thus, a number of new laws and codes have been adopted, including the Criminal Code (1995), the Civil Code (1999), the Commercial Code (1999), the Criminal Procedure Code (1996) and the Civil Procedure Code (1999). Following the transition, major reforms in the legal system continued, such as the use of Chinese language in courts and legislations.
From a constitutional point of view, the Macau legal system is characterized by the existence of a text with constitutional force in the Macau SAR, the Basic Law of the Macau Special Administrative Region, promulgated by the National People's Congress in 1993. As a rule, the national laws of the People's Republic of China do not apply to Macau, except for those expressly indicated in Annex III of the Basic Law. At present, they are eleven and deal with matters not included in the autonomy of the Special Administrative Region, such as national defense and external relations.
The gambling sector, being a fundamental economic activity for Macau, is subject to a very developed regulation, having therefore a good and developed right of the game. There is no death penalty or life imprisonment in Macau, as they are not covered by the Macau Criminal Code.
Macau Police vehicles
Main article: People's Liberation Army Macau Garrison
See also: Military of Macau under Portuguese rule and Liaison Office of the Central People's Government in the Macao Special Administrative Region
Under Portuguese rule, Macau often served as an expeditionary base to Japan and other regions of East Asia from the 16th century onwards, while maintaining a strong garrison mainly to repel Dutch and mainland Chinese attacks. However, since the allied British settled Hong Kong, the need for a strong military presence in Macau dimmed and it became limited before ceasing in 1974. However, despite having no Portuguese garrison left on the territory, a small security force managed by the local PSP was kept, which proved useful with the escalating triad warfare tensions towards the last decades of Portuguese administration. Also the Capitania dos Portos kept operating a coast guard and the Portuguese airforce kept airfields active until the opening of Macau International Airport in the mid-1990s. In 1999, upon handover to the PRC, a substantial garrison of the People's Liberation Army was established in the city helping deliver the last blow to the violence perpetrated by the triads, who were weakened by police action and arrests prior to the handover. The garrison remains, with a large portion of the forces stationed in neighbouring Zhuhai as well.
According to the Article 14, Macau Basic Law, The Central People's Government shall be responsible for the defense of the Macao Special Administrative Region. And The Government of the Macao SAR shall be responsible for the maintenance of public order in the Region.
Main article: Foreign relations of Macau
As a special administrative region (SAR) of the People's Republic of China (PRC), Macau's diplomatic relations and defence are the responsibility of the Central People's Government of the PRC. Except diplomatic relations and defence, nonetheless, Macau has retained considerable autonomy in all aspects, including economic and commercial relations, customs control.
According to Chapter VII of Macau's basic law, Macau may, on its own, using the name Macau, China or Macao, China, maintain and develop relations and conclude and implement agreements with foreign states and regions and relevant international organisations in the appropriate fields, including the economic, trade, financial and monetary, shipping, communications, tourism, cultural, science and technology, and sports fields. In addition, Macau can participate in international organizations and conferences not limited to states.
The Macau government has maintained offices in Lisbon, Taipei, Beijing and in Brussels for the European Union. The Special Administrative Region of Macau is member of the World Trade Organization, International Monetary Fund as well as other international cultural and commercial organizations. Macau is twinned with:
São Paulo, Brazil
Praia, Cape Verde
Da Nang, Vietnam
San Francisco, United States
Seoul, South Korea
Macau has established different friendship conventions and cultural memorandums with sister cities.
Administrative divisions of Macau
Macau is divided into 8 parishes.
Nossa Senhora de Fátima
Main article: Geography of Macau
Macau is situated 60 kilometres (37 mi) southwest of Hong Kong and 145 kilometres (90 mi) from Guangzhou of Mainland China. It also has 41 kilometres (25 mi) of coastline, yet only 310 metres (1,000 ft) of land border with Guangdong of Mainland China. It consists of the Macau Peninsula itself and the islands of Taipa and Coloane, which are now connected by landfill forming Cotai. The peninsula is formed by the Zhu Jiang (Pearl River) estuary on the east and the Xi Jiang (West River) on the west. It borders the Zhuhai Special Economic Zone in mainland China. The main border crossing between Macau and China is known as the Portas do Cerco (Barrier Gate) on the Macau side, and the Gongbei Port of Entry on the Zhuhai side.
Lago Nam Van, Macao
View of the casinos from Science Center
View of Taipa from Science Center
East China Sea between Taipa and the Macau Peninsula, Macau
Aerial view of Macau at night
View of the old city in Macau with tenement housing in the foreground
View of the old city
Macau Peninsula was originally an island, but a connecting sandbar gradually turned into a narrow isthmus. Land reclamation in the 17th century transformed Macau into a peninsula with generally flat terrain, though numerous steep hills still mark the original land mass. Alto de Coloane is the highest point in Macau, with an altitude of 170.6 metres (559.7 ft). With a dense urban environment, Macau has no arable land, pastures, forest, or woodland.
In 2015, the Chinese government assigned Macau administrative responsibility for 85 km (33 sq mi) of coastal ocean area.
Macau has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification: Cwa), despite its low elevation coastal location south of the Tropic of Cancer, with average relative humidity between 75% and 90%. Similar to much of South China, seasonal climate is greatly influenced by the monsoons, and differences in temperature and humidity between summer and winter are noticeable, though not as great as in mainland China. The average annual temperature of Macau is 22.7 °C (72.9 °F). July is the warmest month, the average temperature being 28.9 °C (84.0 °F). The coolest month is January, with a mean temperature of 14.5 °C (58.1 °F).
Located on China's southern coast, Macau has ample rainfall, with average annual precipitation being 2,120 millimetres (83 in). However, winter is mostly dry due to the influence of the vast Siberian High affecting much of East Asia. Autumn in Macau, from October to November, is sunny and still pleasantly warm with lower humidity. Winter (December to early March) is generally mild with temperatures above 13 °C (55 °F) most of the time, although it can drop below 8 °C (46 °F) at times. Humidity starts to increase from late March. Summer is very warm to hot (often rising above 30 °C (86 °F) during the day). The hot weather is often followed by heavy rain, thunderstorms and occasional typhoons.
Climate data for Macau (1981–2010, extremes 1901–present)
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average precipitation days
Average relative humidity (%)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Source: Macao Meteorological and Geophysical Bureau
Climate data for Macau
Average sea temperature °C (°F)
Mean daily daylight hours
Average Ultraviolet index
Source: Weather Atlas
Main articles: Economy of Macau and Gambling in Macau
Seat of the Banco Nacional Ultramarino
Employed population by
Service & sale workers
Workers in agriculture/fishery
Craft & similar workers
Macau's economy is based largely on tourism. Other chief economic activities in Macau are export-geared textile and garment manufacturing, banking and other financial services. The clothing industry provides about three quarters of export earnings, and the gaming, tourism and hospitality industry is estimated to contribute more than 50% of Macau's GDP, and 70% of Macau government revenue.
Macau is a founding member of the WTO and has maintained sound economic and trade relations with more than 120 countries and regions, with European Union and Portuguese-speaking countries in particular; Macau is also a member of the IMF. The World Bank classifies Macau as a high income economy and the GDP per capita of the region in 2006 was US$28,436. After the 1999 Handover, China eased travel restrictions and visits from the mainland rose rapidly. Together with the liberalization of Macau's gaming industry in 2001, which induced significant investment inflows, the average growth rate of the economy between 2001 and 2006 was approximately 13.1% annually.
In a World Tourism Organization report of international tourism for 2006, Macau ranked 21st in the number of tourists and 24th in terms of tourism receipts. From 9.1 million visitors in 2000, arrivals to Macau has grown to 18.7 million visitors in 2005 and 22 million visitors in 2006, with over 50% of the arrivals coming from mainland China and another 30% from Hong Kong.
Starting in 1962, the gambling industry had been operated under a government-issued monopoly license by Stanley Ho's Sociedade de Turismo e Diversões de Macau. The monopoly ended in 2002 and several casino owners from Las Vegas attempted to enter the market. With the opening of the Sands Macao, in 2004 and Wynn Macau in 2006, gambling revenues from Macau's casinos grew considerably prosperous. In 2007, Venetian Macau, at the time the second (in 2017 is seventh) largest building in the world by floor area, opened its doors to the public, followed by MGM Grand Macau. Numerous other hotel casinos, including Galaxy Cotai Megaresort, opened in 2011, and plans for a $3.9 billion complex that will be known as Lisboa Palace is expected to be completed by 2017. In February 2015, the gambling revenue in Macau fell by 48.6 percent from a year earlier to 19.5 billion patacas ($2.4 billion), the biggest monthly decline that has ever been recorded. Reasons for this fall of revenue are related to the slowdown that the Chinese economy is having and a corruption crackdown by Chinese officials which has constrained lavish spending.
In 2002, the Macau government ended the monopoly system and six casino operating concessions and subconcessions are granted to Sociedade de Turismo e Diversões de Macau, Wynn Resorts, Las Vegas Sands, Galaxy Entertainment Group, the partnership of MGM Mirage and Pansy Ho (daughter of Stanley Ho), and the partnership of Melco and Publishing and Broadcasting Limited (PBL). Today, there are 16 casinos operated by the STDM, and they are still crucial in the casino industry in Macau, but in 2004, the opening of the Sands Macau ushered in the new era. Gambling revenue has made Macau the world's top casino market, surpassing Las Vegas.
The amount of performances performed in Macau has also shown an increasing trend since the early 2010s, including the show House of Dancing Water, concerts, industry trade shows and international art crossovers.
Macau is an offshore financial centre, a tax haven, and a free port with no foreign exchange control regimes. The Monetary Authority of Macau regulates offshore finance, while the Macau Trade and Investment Promotion Institute provides services for investment in Macau. In 2007, Moody's Investors Service upgraded Macau's foreign and local currency government issuer ratings to 'Aa3' from 'A1', citing its government's solid finances as a large net creditor. The rating agency also upgraded Macau's foreign currency bank deposit ceiling to 'Aa3' from 'A1'.
As prescribed by the Macau Basic Law, the government follows the principle of keeping expenditure within the limits of revenues in drawing up its budget, and strives to achieve a fiscal balance, avoid deficits and keep the budget commensurate with the growth rate of its gross domestic product. All financial revenue of the Macau Special Administrative Region shall be managed and controlled by the region itself and shall not be handed over to the Central People's Government. The Central People's Government shall not levy any taxes in the Macau Special Administrative Region.
Sands Casino, Macau
Casino Resort MGM Macau
Governador Nobre de Carvalho Bridge, Macau
City of Dreams
Both sides of 100 patacas issued by BNU on 13 July 1992
In Macau, the unit of currency is the pataca, which is currently pegged to the Hong Kong dollar at a rate of HK$1 = MOP1.03. The name pataca is a Portuguese word which was applied to the Mexican dollars that were the main circulating coin in the wider region in the second half of the 19th century. In 1894, the pataca was introduced in both Macau and Portuguese Timor as a unit of account for the Mexican dollar and the other silver dollar coins in circulation. However, the pataca was not the official currency when it was first enacted. In 1901, it was decided to grant the Banco Nacional Ultramarino the exclusive rights to issue banknotes denominated in patacas, and in the year 1906, all foreign coins were outlawed. However, the Chinese were suspicious of these paper patacas, being so accustomed to using silver for barter, and as such, the paper patacas circulated at a discount in relation to the silver dollar coins.In 1935, when China and Hong Kong abandoned the silver standard, the Hong Kong dollar was pegged to sterling at the fixed rate of 1 shilling and 3 pence, whereas the pataca was pegged to the Portuguese escudo at a sterling equivalent rate of only 1 shilling. From 1945 to 1951, fractional coins of the pataca were minted for issue in Portuguese Timor; and, in 1952, similar issues were minted for Macau including an actual pataca coin for the first time.
Main articles: Demographics of Macau and Macau people
Macau is the most densely populated region in the world, with a population density of 21,185.28 persons per square kilometre in 2016. Han Chinese make up 95% of Macau's population; another 2% is of Portuguese and/or mixed Chinese/Portuguese descent, an ethnic group often referred to as Macanese. According to the 2006 by-census, 47% of the residents were born in mainland China, of whom 74.1% were born in Guangdong and 15.2% in Fujian. Meanwhile, 42.5% of the residents were born in Macau, and those born in Hong Kong, the Philippines and Portugal shared 3.7%, 2.0% and 0.3% respectively.
The growth of population in Macau mainly relies on immigrants from mainland China and the influx of overseas workers since its birth rate is one of the lowest in the world. According to The World Factbook, Macau has the fourth highest life expectancy in the world, while its infant mortality rate ranks among the lowest in the world.
languages spoken at home
Other Chinese varieties
Many boards and establishments make use of names in Chinese and Portuguese
Macau's official languages are Chinese (Cantonese) and Portuguese. Macau still retains its own dialect of Portuguese, called Macanese Portuguese. Other languages-such as Mandarin, English, and Hokkien-are spoken by local communities. The Macanese language, a distinctive creole generally known as Patuá, is still spoken by several dozen Macanese.
Since Macau has an economy driven by tourism, 14.6% of the workforce is employed in restaurants and hotels, and 10.3% in the gambling industry. With the opening of several casino resorts and other major constructions underway, many sectors reportedly experience a shortage of labour, and the government seeks to import labour from neighbouring regions.
The number of imported workers stood at a record high of 98,505 in the second quarter of 2008, representing more than 25% of the labour force in Macau. Some local workers complain about the lack of jobs due to the influx of cheap imported labour. Some also claim that the problem of illegal labour is severe. Another concern is the widening of income inequality in the region. Macau's Gini coefficient, a popular measure of income inequality where a low value indicates a more equal income distribution, rose from 0.43 in 1998 to 0.48 in 2006. It is higher than those of neighbouring regions, such as mainland China (0.447), South Korea (0.316) and Singapore (0.425).
Ruins of St. Paul's
Main article: Religion in Macau
Macau residents are endowed with considerable religious tolerance and freedom. Most Chinese in Macau are profoundly influenced by their own tradition and culture. While most are not religiously affiliated, many take part in Chinese folk religion (Taoism and Confucianism). According to a survey conducted in 2005, 2007 and 2009, 55% of the population do not declare religious affiliation, 30% follows folk faiths, 10% are adherents of Buddhism or Taoism, and the remaining 5% part are Christians . Most Christians in Macao are members of the Catholic Church, which is organized and structured in Macau in the Diocese of Macau.
Main article: Education in Macau
University of Macau
A fifteen-year free education is currently being offered to residents, that includes a three-year kindergarten, followed by a six-year primary education and a six-year secondary education. The literacy rate of the territory is 93.5%. The illiterates are mainly among the senior residents aged 65 or above; the younger generation, for example the population aged 15–29, has a literacy rate of above 99%. Currently, there is only one school in Macau where Portuguese is the medium of instruction, Macau Portuguese School.
Macau does not have its own region-wide education system; non-tertiary schools follow either the British, the Chinese, Portuguese, or the Canadian education system. There are currently 10 tertiary educational institutions in the region, four of them being public. According to a post written in July 2017, The International School of Macao was ranked Macau's top private school. In 2006, the Programme for International Student Assessment, a worldwide test of 15-year-old schoolchildren's scholastic performance coordinated by OECD, ranked Macau as the fifth and sixth in science and problem solving respectively. Nevertheless, educational attainment in Macau is relatively low when compared to other high income countries. According to the 2006 by-census, among the resident population aged 14 and above, only 51.8% has a secondary education and 12.6% has a tertiary education.
As prescribed by the Basic Law of Macau Chapter VI Article 121, the Government of Macau shall, on its own, formulate policies on education, including policies regarding the educational system and its administration, the language of instruction, the allocation of funds, the examination system, the recognition of educational qualifications, and the system of academic awards so as to promote educational development. The government shall also in accordance with law, gradually institute a compulsory education system. Community organizations and individuals may, in accordance with law, run educational undertakings of various kinds.
See also: List of hospitals in Macau
Kiang Wu Hospital
Macau is served by one major public hospital, the Hospital Conde S. Januário, and one major private hospital, the Hospital Kiang Wu, both located in Macau Peninsula, as well as a university associated hospital called Macau University of Science and Technology Hospital in Cotai. In addition to hospitals, Macau also has numerous health centres providing free basic medical care to residents. Consultation in traditional Chinese medicine is also available.
None of the Macau hospitals are independently assessed through international healthcare accreditation. There are no western-style medical schools in Macau, and thus all aspiring physicians in Macau have to obtain their education and qualification elsewhere. Local nurses are trained at the Macau Polytechnic Institute and the Kiang Wu Nursing College. Currently there are no training courses in midwifery in Macau. A study by the University of Macau, commissioned by the Macau SAR government, concluded that Macau is too small to have its own medical specialist training centre.
The Macau Corps of Firefighters (Portuguese: Corpo de Bombeiros de Macau) is responsible for ambulance service (Ambulância de Macau). The Macau Red Cross also operates ambulances (Toyota HiAce vans) for emergency and non-emergencies to local hospitals with volunteer staff. The organization has a total of 739 uniformed firefighters and paramedics serving from 7 stations in Macau.
The Health Bureau in Macau is mainly responsible for coordinating the activities between the public and private organizations in the area of public health, and assure the health of citizens through specialized and primary health care services, as well as disease prevention and health promotion. The Macau Centre for Disease Control and Prevention was established in 2001, which monitors the operation of hospitals, health centres, and the blood transfusion centre in Macau. It also handles the organization of care and prevention of diseases affecting the population, sets guidelines for hospitals and private healthcare providers, and issues licences.
As of 2016[update] Macau healthcare authorities send many patients to Queen Mary Hospital in Hong Kong in certain cases, and many Macau residents intentionally seek healthcare in Hong Kong because they place more trust in Hong Kong doctors than in Mainland-trained doctors operating in Macau.
Main article: Transport in Macau
Air Macau Airbus A321
2011 Macau Yacht Fair
Ponte de Amizade (Friendship Bridge) from Macau Peninsula (left) to Taipa
Terminal of Macau International Airport (left) and a section of the LRT (right)
In Macau, traffic drives on the left, unlike in either mainland China or Portugal, but like neighbouring Hong Kong. Macau has a well-established public transport network connecting the Macau Peninsula, Cotai, Taipa Island and Coloane Island. Buses and taxis are the major modes of public transport in Macau. Currently three companies – Transmac, Transportas Companhia de Macau and Macau Nova Era de Autocarros Públicos operate franchised public bus services in Macau. The trishaw, a hybrid of the tricycle and the rickshaw, is also available, though it is mainly for sightseeing purposes. The newest public bus operator, Macau Nova Era, previously Reolian Public Transport Co., entered service on 1 August 2011. This new bus operator operates on the existing routes by Transmac and Transportas Companhia de Macau. Free Casino Shuttle Buses are everywhere in Macau. Due to tourism being the main economic industry in Macau a majority of the larger hotels provide free round trip shuttle bus services which cover the major tourist sites including the airport, Outer Harbour Ferry Terminal, Taipa Temporary Ferry Terminal and other sites. Some Larger hotels such as Venetian Hotel and Holiday Inn even provide a free shuttle between them. The frequency for each route is usually 15 minutes.
The taxi system is noted for having a notoriously poor reputation among tourists and even locals. Common complaints include "constant overcharging, refusal of passengers when the destination or passenger type does not suit the driver, circuitous routes and even violent behaviour." In recent years, the Macau government have been making attempts to hold drivers to a higher standard of service through methods such as undercover police prosecuting drivers who violate the taxi regulations on the spot.
The Outer Harbour Ferry Terminal and the Taipa Temporary Ferry Terminal provides cross-border transportation services for passengers travelling between Macau and Hong Kong, while the Yuet Tung Terminal in the Inner Harbour serves those travelling between Macau and cities in mainland China, including Shekou and Shenzhen.
The Macau Light Rapid Transit or Macau LRT also known as Metro Ligeiro de Macau is a mass transit system in Macau under construction. It will serve the Macau Peninsula, Taipa and Cotai, serving major border checkpoints such as the Border Gate, the Outer Harbour Ferry Terminal, the Lotus Bridge Border and the Macau International Airport. It is planned to open in 2019.
Macau has one active international airport, known as Macau International Airport located at the eastern end of Taipa and neighbouring waters. The airport used to serve as one of the main transit hubs for passengers travelling between mainland China and Taiwan, but now with the introduction of direct flights between those two regions, passenger traffic in this regard has lessened. It is the primary hub for Air Macau. In 2006, the airport handled about 5 million passengers.
Historic Centre of Macao
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Clockwise from top right:
Ruins of St. Paul's; Casino Lisboa; St. Joseph Seminary Church; Governor Nobre de Carvalho Bridge; A-Ma Temple; Guia Fortress; Macau Tower
Cultural: ii, iii, iv, vi
2005 (29th Session)
Main article: Culture of Macau
Remains of the Cathedral of St. Paul, Macau
The mixing of the Chinese and Portuguese cultures and religious traditions for more than four centuries has left Macau with an inimitable collection of holidays, festivals and events. The biggest event of the year is the Macau Grand Prix in November, when the main streets in Macau Peninsula are converted to a racetrack bearing similarities with the Monaco Grand Prix. Other annual events include Macau Arts festival in March, the International Fireworks Display Contest in September, the International Music festival in October and/or November, and the Macau International Marathon in December.
The Lunar Chinese New Year is the most important traditional festival and celebration normally takes place in late January or early February. The Pou Tai Un Temple in Taipa is the place for the Feast of Tou Tei, the Earth god, in February. The Procession of the Passion of Our Lord is a well-known Roman Catholic rite and journey, which travels from Saint Austin's Church to the Cathedral, also taking place in February.
A-Ma Temple, which honours the Goddess Matsu, is in full swing in April with many worshippers celebrating the A-Ma festival. In May it is common to see dancing dragons at the Feast of the Drunken Dragon and twinkling-clean Buddhas at the Feast of the Bathing of Lord Buddha. In Coloane Village, the Taoist god Tam Kong is also honoured on the same day. Dragon Boat festival is brought into play on Nam Van Lake in June and Hungry Ghosts' festival, in late August and/or early September every year. All events and festivities of the year end with Winter Solstice in December.
Macau preserves many historical properties in the urban area. The Historic Centre of Macau, which includes some twenty-five historic locations, was officially listed as a World Heritage Site UNESCO on 15 July 2005 during the 29th session of the World Heritage Committee, held in Durban, South Africa.
Na Tcha Temple, Macau
Museum of Macau
Dom Pedro V theatre
Local cooking in Macau consists of a blend of Cantonese and Portuguese cuisines. Many unique dishes resulted from the spice blends that the wives of Portuguese sailors used in an attempt to replicate European dishes. Its ingredients and seasonings include those from Europe, South America, Africa, India, and Southeast Asia, as well as local Chinese ingredients. Typically, Macanese food is seasoned with various spices and flavours including turmeric, coconut milk, cinnamon and bacalhau, giving special aromas and tastes. Famous dishes include minchi, capella, galinha à Portuguesa, galinha à Africana (African chicken), bacalhau, Macanese chili shrimps and stir-fry curry crab. Pork chop bun, ginger milk and Portuguese-style egg tart are also very popular in Macau.
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2008 Macau F3 Grand Prix in progress
Macau has its own professional football league, the Campeonato da 1ª Divisão do Futebol, where the Big Three professional football clubs of Portugal have their own branches: S.L. Benfica de Macau, Sporting Clube de Macau and F.C. Porto de Macau. In general, football (soccer) has the greatest popularity in Macau, which has a representative international side, Macau national football team. Another common sport is rink hockey, which is often practised by the Portuguese. The national team of Macau is the most powerful of Asia, always participates in the Rink Hockey World Championship in B category and has many Rink Hockey Asian Championship titles. The last Championship was won in Lishui, China, at the 2016 Asian Roller Hockey Championship. Macau also has a basketball team, which qualified for the Asian Basketball Championship twice.
The automobile racing event Macau Grand Prix is arguably the most important international sporting event in Macau, mainly with Formula 3, motorcycle road racing and touring car races.
Since 1989, Macau owns a thoroughbred horse racing track called Taipa Racecourse operated by the Macau Jockey Club. The racecourse has a 15,000 seater grandstand.
Stanley Ho, business magnate, father of Macau gambling industry
Xian Xinghai (spelt as Hsien Hsing-hai during his era), 冼星海 musician and composer during Sino-Japanese War, known work included Yellow River Cantata
Michelle Reis, Hong Kong actress and former Miss Hong Kong
Edmund Ho, business leader, chief executive of Macau SAR
Jenny Tseng, 甄妮 Cantonese pop singer and actress in the 70s and 80s
Ming-Na Wen, 温明娜 TV and movie actress, one of the first Chinese-American actresses with a contract role
Foreign relations of Macau
Index of Macau-related articles
List of bridges and tunnels in Macau
Macao Science Center
Outline of Macau
Visa policy of Macau
Visa requirements for Chinese citizens of Macau
Cuiheng New Area, since 31 March 2013, a co-operation pilot zone with Macau
Macao Country Study Guide Volume 1 Strategic Information and Developments – Google Books. p. 49 2014.
"Local NPC deputies' election slated for Dec 17". Macau News. 27 November 2017 2018.
"Preliminary Results of 2016 Population By-Census". Statistics and Census Service. Macao SAR Government. 23 December 2016 2018.
"DSEC - 統計資料". www.dsec.gov.mo.
Macau Yearbook 2007, 475.
"Macau and the end of empire". BBC News. 18 December 1999 2008.
"Content of Basic Law of Macau". University of Macau 2008.
"Joint declaration of the Government of the People's Republic of China and The Government of the Republic of Portugal on the question of Macau". GPB Govt of Macau. Archived from the original on 16 December 2007 2008.
Barboza, David (23 January 2007). "Macao Surpasses Las Vegas as Gambling Center". The New York Times.
"Life expectancy at birth". CIA 2013.
Macau in Figures, 2016
""GDP per capita, PPP (current international $)", World Development Indicators database" 2014.
Branigan, Tania (11 May 2011). "Macau – gaming capital of the world". The Guardian.
"Macau: The world's gambling capital". BBC News.
Riley, Charles (6 January 2014). "Macau's gambling industry is now 7 times bigger than Vegas". CNNMoney.
Macau Yearbook 2007, 517.
"Macau A-ma Temple". Travel China Guide 2015.
Wu, Z., and G. Jin. "The evolution of spellings of ‘Macau’: An examination of early Portuguese and Western archival materials." Macao–cultural interaction and literary representations (2014): 3-11.
"The entry "Macau history" in Macau Encyclopedia" (in Chinese). Macau Foundation. Archived from the original on 13 October 2007 2008.
Joseph Timothy Haydn (1885). Dictionary of dates, and universal reference. [With] (18 ed.). Oxford University. p. 522. MACAO (in Quang-tong, S. China) was given to the Portuguese as a commercial station in 1586 (in return for their assistance against pirates), subject to an annual tribute, which was remitted in 1863. Here Camoens composed part of the "Lusiad."
The Mirror of literature, amusement, and instruction, Volume 7. London: J. Limbird. 1845. p. 262. The Chinese were obliged to restrict the commerce of Portugal to the port of Macau, in 1631. A partnership was then formed with some Chinese dealers in Canton, who were to furnish exports and take delivery of imports at Macau. This scheme did not suit the Chinese; they were dissatisfied with their partners, and speedily dissolved the connection. (Princeton University).
George Bryan Souza (2004). The Survival of Empire: Portuguese Trade and Society in China and the South China Sea 1630–1754 (reprint ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 32. buy this book. soldiers 5000 slaves 20000 Chinese 1643 2000 moradores (Portuguese inhabitants) 1644 40000 total inhabitants 1648 Jesuits record
Stephen Adolphe Wurm; Peter Mühlhäusler; Darrell T. Tryon (1996). Atlas of languages of intercultural communication in the Pacific, Asia and the Americas. Walter de Gruyter. p. 323. buy this book. The Portuguese population of Macau was never very large. Between the period 1601–1669, a typical cross section of the population consisted of about 600 casados, 100–200 other Portuguese, some 5000 slaves and a growing number of Chinese
Zhidong Hao (2011). Macau History and Society (illustrated ed.). Hong Kong University Press. p. 63. buy this book. This is a time when there were most African slaves, about 5100. In comparison there were about 1000 to 2000 during the later Portuguese rule in Macau.
Historical figures of Macau, by CCTV.
"The entry "Catholic" in Macau Encyclopedia" (in Chinese). Macau Foundation. Archived from the original on 24 December 2007 2008.
Historical figures of Macau by CCTV
History of the Qing (清史稿)
Indrani Chatterjee; Richard Maxwell Eaton, eds. (2006). Slavery and South Asian history (illustrated ed.). Indiana University Press. p. 238. buy this book. Portuguese,"he concluded;"The Portuguese beat us off from Macau with their slaves."10 The same year as the Dutch ... an English witness recorded that the Portuguese defense was conducted primarily by their African slaves
Middle East and Africa. Taylor & Francis. 1996. p. 544. buy this book. A miscellaneous assemblage of Portuguese soldiers, citizens, African slaves, friars, and Jesuits managed to withstand the attack. Following this defeat, the Dutch made no further attempts to take Macau, although they continued to harass
Christina Miu Bing Cheng (1999). Macau: a cultural Janus (illustrated ed.). Hong Kong University Press. p. 159. buy this book. invaded Macau on 24 June 1622 but was defeated by a handful of Portuguese priests, citizens and African slaves
Steven Bailey (2007). Strolling in Macau: A Visitor's Guide to Macau, Taipa, and Coloane (illustrated ed.). ThingsAsian Press. p. 15. buy this book. On June 24, 1622, a Dutch fleet under Captain Kornelis Reyerszoon assembled a landing force of some 800 armed sailors, a number thought more than sufficient to overpower Macau's relatively weak garrison. Macau's future as a Dutch colony seemed all but assured, since the city's ... still remained under construction and its defenders numbered only about 60 soldiers and 90 civilians, who ranged from Jesuit priests to African slaves
Ruth Simms Hamilton, ed. (2007). Routes of passage: rethinking the African diaspora, Volume 1, Part 1. Volume 1 of African diaspora research. Michigan State University Press. p. 143. buy this book. Jan Coen, who had been sent to establish a Dutch base on the China coast, wrote about the slaves who served the Portuguese so faithfully: "It was they who defeated and drove away our people last year."(the University of California)
Centro de Estudos Históricos Ultramarinos (1968). Studia, Issue 23. Centro de Estudos Históricos Ultramarinos. p. 89. 85, quotes a report from the Dutch governor-general, Coen, in 1623: "The slaves of the Portuguese at Macau served them so well and faithfully, that it was they who defeated and drove away from our people last year".(University of Texas)
Themba Sono (1993). Japan and Africa: the evolution and nature of political, economic and human bonds, 1543–1993. HSRC. p. 23. buy this book. A year later, Captain Coen was still harping on the same theme: 'The slaves of the Portuguese at Macau served them so well and faithfully, that it was they who defeated and drove away our people there last year'.
Charles Ralph Boxer (1968). Fidalgos in the Far East 1550–1770 (2nd, illustrated, reprint ed.). Oxford U.P. p. 85. The enemy, it was reported, 'had lost many more men than we, albeit mostly slaves. Our people saw very few Portuguese'. A year later he was still harping on the same theme. 'The slaves of the Portuguese at Macau served them so well and faithfully, that it was they who defeated and drove away our people there (University of Michigan).
Macau Yearbook 2007, 518.
p.116 Garrett, Richard J. The Defences of Macau: Forts, Ships and Weapons Over 450 Years Hong Kong University Press, 1 February 2010
p.117 Garrett, Richard J. The Defences of Macau: Forts, Ships and Weapons Over 450 Years Hong Kong University Press, 1 February 2010
Lo Shiu-hing (December 1989). "Aspects of Political Development in Macau". The China Quarterly. 120: 837–851. doi:10.1017/S030574100001849X.
Cathryn H. Clayton (2010). Sovereignty at the Edge: Macau & the Question of Chineseness. Harvard University Press. p. 48. buy this book.
Columbia Chronologies of Asian History and Culture, John Bowman, Columbia University Press, 2005, page 248
Macau Yearbook 2007, 519–520.
"Macau: Economy". Michigan State University 2014.
"Macau Casinos Thrive As Landscape Shifts". Nikkei Asian Review 2014.
"Basic Law of Macau Chapter II: Relationship between the Central Authorities and the Macau Special Administrative Region". Government Printing Bureau. Archived from the original on 20 March 2001 2008.
"Basic Law of Macau Chapter V: The Economy". Government Printing Bureau. Archived from the original on 5 January 2008 2008.
"Basic Law of Macau Chapter VII: External Affairs". Government Printing Bureau. Archived from the original on 5 January 2008 2008.
"Election of the Chief Executive". Government Printing Bureau. Archived from the original on 8 November 2005 2006.
Macau 2007 Yearbook. Government Information Bureau of Macau SAR. 2007. buy this book.
"Edmund Ho Wins Election for 2nd Term". Xinhua News Agency. Archived from the original on 21 May 2008 2008.
"Introduction of the Legislative Assembly of the Macau Special Administrative Region". The Legislative Assembly of Macau. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016 2006.
"List of Suffrage". CIA – The World Factbook 2008.
"Polls favor indirect vote of Macau's next chief executive". (Source: Xinhua) People's Daily Online 2008.
"Macao legislature passes national security bill". Peopledaily 2009.
"Macao: Stop the National Security Bill now". Amnesty International 2009.
Sam Hou Fai. "Brief Introduction of Judicial System of Macau SAR". UNESCO. Archived from the original on 30 April 2006 2006.
"Background Note: Macau – Government". Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs, U.S. Department of State 2007.
"Estatístico: Área de solos das freguesias". Direcção dos Serviços de Cartografia e Cadastro de Macau 2014.
"Macau Geography". AsiaRooms.com 2008.
Yan. "Zhuhai Gongbei Checkpoint Opens Earlier". New Guangdong newsgd 2008.
"Macao to administrate 85 square kilometres of waters". Government Information Bureau of the MSARGovernment Information Bureau of the MSAR. Government of Macau 2015.
"Macau Climate, Temp, Rainfall and Humidity". Nexus Business Media Limited. Archived from the original on 16 December 2007 2008.
"100 years of Macau Climate". Macao Meteorological and Geophysical Bureau. Archived from the original on 10 January 2011 2011.
"Macao Climate: 30-year Statistics of some meteorological elements". Macao Meteorological and Geophysical Bureau.
"Macao Climate: Extreme Value of some meteorological elements (1901-2016)". Macao Meteorological and Geophysical Bureau.
"Macau, China - Climate data". Weather Atlas 2017.
"Employed population by occupation". Statistics and Census Service (DSEC) of the Macau Government. Archived from the original on 24 November 2007 2007.
"CIA the world factbook". CIA the World Factbook – Macau 2007.
"Income Group – High Income, World Bank". World Bank 2007.
"Economic statistics from Monetary Authority of Macau". AMCM. Archived from the original on 19 December 2012 2007.
"UNWTO World Tourism Barameter" (PDF). World Tourism Organisation (UNWTO). June 2007 2008.
"Visitor arrivals by place of residence". Statistics and Census Service (DSEC) of the Macau Government 2006.[permanent dead link]
"Sands Macau-is the largest casino in the world". Ready Bet Go 2006.[dead link]
"Wynn Fine-Tuning Details at 600-Room Macau Resort". Gaming News 2006.
"Macau, a tiny special administrative region of China, appears to have overtaken the famous Las Vegas Strip as the world's top gambling destination". BBC News – Business. 25 October 2006 2006.
"Vegas vs. Macau, who will win?". BusinessWeek Online (8 June 2006) 2006.
David Barboza (24 January 2007). "Asian Rival Moves Past Las Vegas". New York Times 2007.
Galaxy to open Cotai resort on May 15. Archived 30 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine. 11 March 2011 09:06:00 Tiago Azevedo. Macau Daily Times
"Macau Rides High on New Round of Casino Construction" 2014.
"Macau Casino Revenue Plunges by Half in February". THE ASSOCIATED PRESS. The New York Times. 3 March 2015 2015.
"Monopoly on Macau's Gambling Industry to End". People's Daily 2008.
"Gambling empire bets on rebranding". China Daily 2008.
"World Class Casino". BBC News 2014.
"House of Dancing Water". Macau.com. Archived from the original on 8 February 2012 2012.
"MGM Dragon with Pat Lee". Popular Trash. Archived from the original on 28 May 2013 2012.
Luis Pereira. "Offshore Operation in Macau". Macau Business 2007.
Errico and Musalem (1999). "Countries, Territories, and Jurisdictions with Offshore Financial Centers". IMF 2006.
"Macau Currency". AsiaRooms.com 2008.
"The homepage of Monetary Authority of Macau". The Monetary Authority of Macau, the Govt. of Macau SAR 2007.
"The Macau Trade and Investment Promotion Institute". The Macau Trade and Investment Promotion Institute, the Govt. of Macau SAR. Archived from the original on 7 November 2007 2007.
"the web site of Hemscott and Empowering Inverstors". Hemscott.com 2007.
"Content – Basic Law of Macau". University of Macau 2008.
"Macau Pataca". OANDA 2014.
"Population density – Persons per sq km 2017 Country Ranks, By Rank, Source: Calculated from the Total Population and Total Area figures reported by the CIA World Factbook 2017". Countries of the World 2017.
Global Results of By-Census 2006. Statistics and Census Service (DSEC) of the Macau Government. 2007.
"Rank Order – Birth rate". The World Factbook. CIA 2007.
"Rank Order – Infant mortality rate". The World Factbook. CIA 2007.
"Solution of Transition-Related Issues Essential to Sino-Portuguese Cooperation". People's Daily Online 2008.
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"Macau Overview". CIA – The World Factbook 2008.
Fernandes, Senna (2004). Maquista Chapado: Vocabulary and Expressions in Macau's Portuguese Creole. Macau: Miguel de and Alan Baxter.
"Principal statistical indicators". Statistics and Census Service (DSEC) of the Macau Government. Archived from the original on 2 January 2008 2007.
"Rare Macau protest turns violent". BBC News – Business. 1 May 2007 2007.
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Zhidong Hao, 2011. pp. 121–122.
Zheng, VWT; Wan, PS. Religious beliefs and life experiences of Macao's residents 澳門居民的宗教信仰與生活經驗. On: Modern China Studies by Center for Modern China, 2010, v. 17 n. 4, p. 91-126. ISSN 2160-0295. "Drawing on empirical data obtained from three consecutive territory-wide household surveys conducted in 2005, 2007, and 2009 respectively, this paper attempts to shed light on the current religious profile of Macao residents."
"PISA 2006 Science Competencies for Tomorrow's World" 2008.
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"Homepage of the College of Nursing and Midwifery". College of Nursing and Midwifery, Macau 2007.
Yau, Elaine (2016-09-12). "Why Macau spends millions to send its patients to Hong Kong – some by air". South China Morning Post. - Print title: "Patients running out"
"Archived copy". Archived from the original on 3 March 2016.
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Macau Yearbook 2007, 467–468.
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"Mostar, Macau and Biblical vestiges in Israel are among the 17 cultural sites inscribed on UNESCO's World Heritage List". UNESCO 2006.
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Fung, Bong Yin (1999). Macau: A General Introduction (in Chinese). Joint Publishing (H.K.) Co. Ltd. buy this book.
Chan, S. S. (2000). The Macau Economy. Publications Centre, University of Macau. buy this book.
Godinho, Jorge (2007). Macau business law and legal system. LexisNexis, Hong Kong. buy this book.
Government Information Bureau (2007). Macau Yearbook 2007. Government Information Bureau of the Macau SAR. buy this book.
Cremer (Editor) (1988). Macau: City of Commerce and Culture. University of Washington Pr. buy this book.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
Berlie, Jean A. (1999). Macao 2000. Oxford University Press editor, Oxford, United Kingdom. buy this book.
Berlie, Jean A. (2000). Macau's overview at the turn of the century. St. John's University Institute of Asian Studies editor, New York.
De Pina-Cabral (2002). Between China and Europe: Person, Culture and Emotion in Macau. Berg Publishers. buy this book.
Eayrs, James (2003). Macau Foreign Policy and Government Guide. International Business Publications, United States. buy this book.
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Civic and Municipal Affairs Bureau (Freguesias of Macau)
N. Sra. de Fátima
Taipa and Coloane
N. Sra. do Carmo
S. Francisco Xavier
Macau New Urban Zone
University of Macau
Municipality of Macau
Municipality of das Ilhas
Lapa, Dom João, and Montanha
Note: The freguesias are purely symbolic there are no political administrative subdivisions in Macau after the formation of Instituto para os Assuntos Cívicos e Municipais in 2002.
Provincial-level divisions of the People's Republic of China
Special administrative regions
Note: Taiwan is claimed by the People's Republic of China but administered by the Republic of China (see Political status of Taiwan).
Metropolitan cities of China
Major Metropolitan regions
Pearl River Delta (PRD) / Yuegang'ao Greater Bay Area
Yangtze River Delta (YRD)
Central Plain (Zhongyuan)
Cross-Strait Western Coast
Yangtze River Mid-Reaches (Yangtze River Valley)
National Central Cities
Special Administrative Regions
Regional Central Cities
Autonomous regional capitals
Comparatively large cities
Prefecture-level cities by Province
Other cities (partly shown below)
(Inner Mongolia: Ulanhot
(Xinjiang - XPCC(Bingtuan) cities: Shihezi
Former Prefecture-level cities
Manzhouli, Inner Mongolia
Erenhot, Inner Mongolia
County-level cities by Province
* Indicates this city has already occurred above.
Direct-controlled Municipalities. Sub-provincial cities as provincial capitals. Separate state-planning cities. Special Economic Zone Cities. Coastal development cities.
Prefecture capital status established by Heilongjiang Province and not recognized by Ministry of Civil Affairs. Disputed by Oroqen Autonomous Banner, Hulunbuir, Inner Mongolia as part of it.
Only administers islands and waters in South China Sea and have no urban core comparable to typical cities in China.
The claimed province of Taiwan no longer have any internal division announced by Ministry of Civil Affairs of PRC, due to lack of actual jurisdiction. See Template:Administrative divisions of the Republic of China instead.
All provincial capitals are listed first in prefecture-level cities by province.
Pearl River Delta Metropolitan Region (Yuegang'ao Greater Bay Area)
Pearl River Delta Economic Zone
Special administrative regions
Hong Kong Island
Major cities along the Pearl River
Cities (from upper reaches to lower reaches)
waterways with Xi
merged into the Shiziyang
merged into the Shiziyang
merged into the Xi
merged into the Yong→Yu
merged into the Yong→Yu
tributaries of Zuo & You
merged into the Xun
merged into the Liu
merged into the Liu
tributaries of Long & Rong
merged into the Qian
merged into the Hongshui
merged into the Hongshui
tributaries of Beipan & Nanpan
merged into the Qian
tributaries of Liu & Hongshui
merged into the Xun
tributaries of Yong→Yu & Qian
merged into the Xi
tributaries of Gui→Li & Xun
waterways with Bei
waterways with Shiziyang & Lingdingyang
South China Sea
tributary of Dong
tributary of Bei
waterways with Xi
waterways with Xi
Guangming New District
Longhua New District
Nanshan District, Shenzhen
Pingshan New District
Dapeng New District
Hong Kong Island
South China Sea
Major cities along the Yangtze River · Major cities along the Yellow River
Countries and dependencies of Asia
East Timor (Timor-Leste)
United Arab Emirates
States with limited recognition
Dependencies and special
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Akrotiri and Dhekelia
British Indian Ocean Territory
Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP)
São Tomé and Príncipe
World Trade Organization
Accession and membership
Dispute Settlement Body
International Trade Centre
Chronology of key events
Doha Development Round
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures
Technical Barriers to Trade
Trade Related Investment Measures
Trade in Services
Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights
Roberto Azevêdo (Director-General)
Antigua and Barbuda
Central African Republic
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Republic of the Congo
Papua New Guinea
St. Kitts and Nevis
St. Vincent and the Grenadines
Trinidad and Tobago
United Arab Emirates
Special administrative regions of the People's Republic of China, participates as "Hong Kong, China" and "Macao China".
Officially the Republic of China, participates as "Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu", and "Chinese Taipei" in short.
Portuguese overseas empire
Alcácer Ceguer (El Qsar es Seghir)
Mazagan (El Jadida)
Santa Cruz do Cabo de Gué (Agadir)
Aguz (Souira Guedima)
Mazagan (El Jadida)
São João da Mamora (Mehdya)
Fernando Poo (Bioko)
Elmina (São Jorge da Mina)
Portuguese Gold Coast
São João Baptista de Ajudá
Portuguese São Tomé and Príncipe
Part of São Tomé and Príncipe from 1753.
A factory (Anosy Region) and small temporary coastal bases.
Part of Portuguese Guinea from 1879.
Part of Portuguese Angola from the 1920s.
Middle East [Persian Gulf]
Gamru (Bandar Abbas)
Julfar (Ras al-Khaimah)
Bahrain (Muharraq • Manama)
Laccadive Islands (Lakshadweep)
• 1502–1658 1659–1661
Quilon (Coulão / Kollam)
Pallipuram (Cochin de Cima)
• 1512–1525 1750
Portuguese Paliacate outpost (Pulicat)
Chittagong (Porto Grande De Bengala)
Daman and Diu
Portuguese Ceylon (Sri Lanka)
Dadra and Nagar Haveli
East Asia and Oceania
Portuguese Malacca [Malaysia]
Portuguese Timor (East Timor)
Lapa and Montanha (Hengqin)
1975 is the year of East Timor's Declaration of Independence and subsequent invasion by Indonesia. In 2002, East Timor's independence was fully recognized.
North America & North Atlantic
15th century [Atlantic islands]
16th century [Canada]
Terra Nova (Newfoundland)
South America & Antilles
Captaincy Colonies of Brazil
Rio de Janeiro
Nova Colónia do Sacramento
Grão-Pará and Maranhão
Grão-Pará and Rio Negro
Maranhão and Piauí
Portuguese Guiana (Amapá)
Upper Peru (Bolivia)
Coats of arms of Portuguese colonies
Evolution of the Portuguese Empire
Portuguese colonial architecture
Portuguese colonialism in Indonesia
Portuguese colonization of the Americas
Theory of the Portuguese discovery of Australia
113°33′E / 22.167; 113.550
Source of information: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - Disclaimer.
The basic process for a server-side web templating system: content (from a database), and "presentation specifications" (in a web template), are combined (through the template engine) to mass-produce web documents.
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A web template system is used in web publishing to allow web designers and developers to work with web templates for the automatic generation of custom web pages, such as the results from a search. This allows for reuse of the static elements of a web page, while allowing the dynamic elements to be defined based on the parameters of the web request. Web templates are also used in the creation of static content, providing a basic structure and appearance characteristic for web content. It can be present in content management systems, web application frameworks, and HTML editors.
A web template system is composed of the following:
A template engine: the primary processing element of the system;
Content resource: any of various kinds of input data streams, such as from a relational database, XML files, LDAP directory, and other kinds of local or networked data;
Template resource: web templates specified according to a template language;
The template and content resources are processed and combined by the template engine to mass-produce web documents. For purposes of this article, web documents include any of various output formats for transmission over the web via HTTP, or another Internet protocol.
Motivations and typical uses
Web templates can be used by any individual or organization to set up their website. Once a template is purchased or downloaded, the user will replace all generic information included in the web template with their own personal, organizational or product information. Examples of common uses of Templates are listed below:
Display personal information or daily activities as in a blog.
Sell products online.
Display information about a company or organization.
Display family history.
Display a gallery of photos.
Place music files such as MP3 files on-line for play through a web browser.
Place videos online for public viewing.
To set up a private login area online.
Various agencies and organizations use web template systems for mass-production of content when slower production alternatives prove unfeasible.
For an introductory overview, take a news website as an example. Consider a "static website", where all web pages are static, built by a web designer. It would be very repetitive work to change individual pages as often as the news changes. A typical strategy to automate the web designer's "repetitive work" using Templates could be as follows:
choose a web template system to maintain the website;
group news items with different presentation needs;
specify the "presentation standards" through web templates, for each group of news;
specify a content resource to generate or update the content of each news item.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (March 2012)
Separation of concerns
Main article: Separation of concerns
A common goal among experienced web developers is to develop and deploy applications that are flexible and easily maintainable. An important consideration in reaching this goal is the separation of business logic from presentation logic. Developers use web template systems (with varying degrees of success) to maintain this separation.
For the web designer, when each web page comes from a web template, they can think about a modular web page structured with components that can be modified independently of each other. These components may include a header, footer, global navigation bar (GNB), local navigation bar and content such as articles, images, videos etc.
For programmers the template language offers a more restricted logic, only for presentation adaptations and decisions, not for complex (business model) algorithms.
For other members of the "site team", a template system frees webmasters to focus on technical maintenance, content suppliers to focus on content, and gives all of them more reliability.
Moreover, it has the following advantages to its use:
Ease of design change: presentation variations on templates are "content invariant", meaning a web designer can update the presentation without wider infrastructural preoccupations.Example of this types of websites
Ease of interface localization: menus and other presentation standards are easy to make uniform, for users browsing on the site. Using Breadcrumb (navigation) makes any website more user friendly and flexible.
Possibility to work separately on design and code by different people at the same time. It can be perform while all the codes in a templates are clean design and every block or section of the websites are write with individual commenting system.
Responsive web design is now a mandatory factors for any website. Everything must be perform without any change in responsive design.
Ease of documentation a handy documentation saves more time to understand the whole template and also accelerate the modification process. Professional website designers highly emphasize documentation.
One difficulty in evaluating separation of concerns is the lack of well-defined formalisms to measure when and how well it is actually met. There are, however, fairly standard heuristics that have been borrowed from the domain of software engineering. These include 'inheritance' (based on principles of object-oriented programming); and 'templating and generative programming', (consistent with the principles of MVC separation). The precise difference between the various guidelines is subject to some debate, and some aspects of the different guidelines share a degree of similarity.
One major rationale behind "effective separation" is the need for maximum flexibility in the code and resources dedicated to the presentation logic. Client demands, changing customer preferences and desire to present a "fresh face" for pre-existing content often result in the need to dramatically modify the public appearance of web content while disrupting the underlying infrastructure as little as possible.
The distinction between "presentation" (front end) and "business logic" (infrastructure) is usually an important one, because:
the presentation source code language may differ from other code assets
the production process for the application may require the work to be done at separate times and locations
different workers have different skill sets, and presentation skills do not always coincide with skills for coding business logic
code assets are easier to maintain and more readable when disparate components are kept separate and loosely coupled
Not all potential users of web templates have the willingness and ability to hire developers to design a system for their needs. Additionally, some may wish to use the web but have limited or no technical proficiency. For these reasons, a number of developers and vendors have released web templates specifically for reuse by non-technical people. Although web template reusability is also important for even highly skilled and technically experienced developers, it is especially critical to those who rely on simplicity and "ready-made" web solutions.
Such "ready-made" web templates are sometimes free, and easily made by an individual domestically. However, specialized web templates are sometimes sold online. Although there are numerous commercial sites that offer web templates for a licensing fee, there are also free and "open-source" sources as well.
With the model typically held in a relational database, the remaining components of the MVC architecture are the control and view. In the simplest of systems these two are not separated. However, adapting the separation of concerns principle one can completely decouple the relationships.
For example, the view template may look like this:
A web browser and web server are a client–server architecture; often a web cache is also used to improve performance. Overall, there are five types of templating systems, classified based on when assembly happens - placeholders are substituted for variable information (such as names, addresses, and product info) and sub-templates:
Server-side - run-time substitution happens on the web server
Client-side - run-time substitution happens in the web browser
Edge-side - run-time substitution happens on a proxy between web server and browser
Outside server - static web pages are produced offline and uploaded to the web server; no run-time substitution
Distributed - run-time substitution happens on multiple servers
Template languages may be:
Embedded or event-driven.
Simple, iterable, programmable, or complex.
Defined by a consortium, privately defined, or de facto defined by an open implementation. Ownership influences the stability and credibility of a specification. However, in most jurisdictions, language specification cannot be copyrighted, so control is seldom absolute.
The source code of the template engine can be proprietary or open source.
Many template systems are a component of a larger programming platform or framework. They are referred to as the "platform's template system". Some template systems have the option of substituting a different template language or engine.
Programming languages such as Perl, Ruby, C, and Java support template processing either natively, or through add-on libraries and modules. JavaServer Pages (JSP), PHP, and Active Server Pages (ASP with VBScript, JScript or other languages) are examples, themselves, of web template engines. These technologies are typically used in server-side templating systems, but could be adapted for use on a "edge-side" proxy or for static page generation.
Static site generators
Outside server template system architecture.
HTML editors often use web template systems to produce only static web pages. These can be viewed as a ready-made web design, used to mass-produce "cookie-cutter" websites for rapid deployment. They also commonly include themes in place of CSS styles. In general, the template language is to be used only with the editor's software.
FrontPage and Dreamweaver were once the most popular editors with template sub-system. A Flash web template uses Macromedia Flash to create visually interactive sites.
HTML authoring. Embedded iterable language.
HTML authoring. Embedded iterable language.
Website Meta Language
Many server-side template systems have the option to publish the output pages on the server, where the published pages will be static. It is a common feature on content management systems, like Vignette. But this does not have to be considered an out-server generation.
In the majority of the cases, this "publish option" doesn't interfere with the template system, and it can be made by external software, as Wget.
Server-side template system
Server-side dynamic pages began to be generated by templates with pre-existent software adapted for this task. This early software was the preprocessors and macro languages, adapted for the web use, running on CGI. Next, a simple but relevant technology was the direct execution made on extension modules, started with SSI.
Many template systems are typically used as server-side template systems:
Public. Embedded complex language.
Use the "Django template language".
Public. Part of JavaServer Faces
Ruby or Other
Public. Embedded complex language.
Proprietary. Interpreted Programming Language and Server
Embedded simple language, if exclude exec directive.
Public. Embedded complex language.
Public. Embedded complex language.
Template Attribute Language (TAL)
Zope, Python, Java, Perl, PHP, XSLT
Public; a.k.a. Zope Page Templates (ZPT); see also TAL Expression Syntax (TALES), Macro Expansion TAL (METAL)
Public. Supports multiple template languages (JSP, Velocity, Freemarker, Mustache) from various frameworks (servlet, portlets, struts, spring).
Public. "As of 2008-02-20, this project is no longer under active development."
Public. Embedded iterable language.
Public. Embedded iterable language.
Use the WebObjects Builder as engine.
Public. Use VTL - Velocity Template Language.
Commercial solution. Embedded complex language.
XSLT (standard language)
Any with an XSLT parser
Standard. Event-driven programmable language.
XQuery (standard language)
Any with an XQuery parser
Standard. Embedded programmable language.
Technically, the methodology of embedding programming languages within HTML (or XML, etc.), used in many "server-side included script languages" are also templates. All of them are Embedded complex languages.
Active Server Pages (ASP)
ColdFusion Markup Language (CFM)
Public (Lucee, Railo, OpenBD). Proprietary (Adobe ColdFusion).
JavaServer Pages (JSP)
Public, Java platform.
There are also preprocessors used as server-side template engines. Examples:
Public. Embedded iterable language.
Public. Embedded complex language.
Edge-Side template and inclusion systems. “Edge-side” refers to web servers that reside in the space between the client (browser) and the originating server. They are often referred to as “reverse-proxy” servers. These servers are generally tasked with reducing the load and traffic on originating servers by caching content such as images and page fragments, and delivering this to the browser in an efficient manner.
Client-side and distributed (decentralized) template system.
Many web browsers can apply an XSLT stylesheet to XML data that transforms the data into an XHTML document, thereby providing template functionality in the browser itself.
The most simple form is transclusions (HTML frames). In other cases dynamic web pages are needed.
Rich Internet application
Comparison of web template engines
Text substitution macros
Template (file format)
UIML (User Interface Markup Language)
XSLT (Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations)
"Template engine". phpwact.org wiki. Archived from the original on December 4, 2012 2013.
Parr, Terence John (2004). Enforcing strict model-view separation in template engines. Proceedings of the 13th international conference on World Wide Web. buy this book.
Paragon Corporation (2003-07-19). "Separation of Business Logic from Presentation Logic in Web Applications".
MVC vs OOP
MacDonald, Matthew (2015). Creating a Website: The Missing Manual. Chapter 8 > Putting the Same Content on Multiple Pages > Web Templates > Note box: O'Reilly Media, Inc. buy this book 2016.