|Freedom Monument in Main Square, Chalanes riding in Victor Larco, Marinera dance with a paso horse, Pair of man and woman dancing marinera, dish of ceviche, surfing with a caballito de totora in Huanchaco, Huaca or Temple of the Sun, Superior Court of Judiciary La Libertad, Trujillo Spring Festival, Ceramic of anal sex mochica, House of Emancipation, View of Huanchaco, God Aiapaec painted in the Temple of the Moon, Guards in Chan Chan, Paseo Pizarro.|
|Nickname(s): The Capital of the everlasting Spring, Capital of Culture in Peru, Capital of the Marinera, Meritorious City and Faithful to the Fatherland, Cradle of the typical Peruvian Paso Horse, Cradle of freedom, Cradle of Judiciary in Peru|
|Spanish foundation||November 1534 by Diego de Almagro|
|• Type||Mayor–council government|
|• Mayor||Cesar Acuña Peralta|
|• Metro||1,100 km (400 sq mi)|
|Elevation||34 m (112 ft)|
|• Urban||709,566(census 2,007)|
|• Metro||920,734 (Estimated 2,013)|
|• Metro density||837/km (2,170/sq mi)|
|Time zone||PET (UTC-5)|
|Patron Saints||San Valentin
Virgin of La Puerta
|Metropolitan area||Trujillo Metropolitano|
Florencia de Mora
|Website||Municipality of Trujillo|
-The city was founded as "Trvxillo of New Castilla"
-About the foundation of the city some author say it was on December 6, 1534
Trujillo, is a city in northwestern Peru, is the capital of La Libertad Region. It is located on the banks of the Moche River, near its mouth at the Pacific Ocean, in the Valley of Moche of great cultural hegemony with Moche and Chimu cultures at its respective time. It is the central core of the second most populous metropolitan area of Peru and most populated city of the North macroregion of the country.
In the Historic Centre of Trujillo on December 29, 1820 was proclaimed the Independence of Trujillo and the city was honored in 1822 by the congress of republic with the title "Meritorious City and Faithful to the Fatherland", for its role in the fight for independence. Trujillo is the birthplace of Peru's judiciary, and it was twice designated as the capital of the country. It was the scene of the Revolution of Trujillo in 1932.
Trujillo is considered the "cradle of liberty and cradle of the judiciary in Peru." Judges in Trujillo took their historic responsibility to ensure the weapons of law: freedom and rights of the people freed from political and military power, normative and ideological of state Spanish The city is also considered the cradle of liberty and cradle of the judiciary in Peru.
Trujillo is known as the "Capital of the everlasting Spring", is considered the "Capital of the Marinera," which is a typical dance in Peru, "Cradle of the typical Peruvian Paso Horse" well as the "Capital of Culture of Peru". It has sponsored numerous national and international cultural events, and has a lively arts community. Current festivals include the "National Marinera Festival", the Trujillo Spring Festival and the International Book Festival, which is one of the most important cultural events in the country.
Trujillo is close to two major archeological sites of pre-Columbian monuments: Chan Chan, the largest adobe city in the ancient world, designated a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1986; and the temples of the Sun and Moon (the largest adobe pyramid in Peru).
The city centre contains many examples of colonial and religious architecture incorporating distinctive wrought ironwork. It includes residential areas, a central business district and industrial supply distribution to the various districts. The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Trujillo has its seat here. Catholicism still dominates and 10 colonial churches remain inside España avenue, with those of Huaman, Huanchaco and Moche within 15 kilometres of Trujillo's centre.
Since 2011, It is developing the pilot project Trujillo: Sustainable City in the platform "Emerging and Sustainable Cities of the Inter-American Development Bank" by its municipality with cooperation of the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB); in 2012 Trujillo has been selected by IBM to develop its project called "Smart City" that will try to focus technologically two problems as public safety and transportation.
Trujillo is considered the "Capital of Culture of Peru" because in this city were formed great thinkers and writers as Cesar Vallejo and Víctor Raúl Haya de la Torre, and also because the city has important traditions as marinera dance, peruvian paso horses, caballitos de totora, Trujillo's gastronomy, etc.; In this city was formed the cultural grouping called North Group that currently has in Eduardo González Viaña and Gerardo Chavez as successors. The city is also considered cultural capital because it presents important festivals in the country as Marinera Festival, Trujillo Spring Festival, Peruvian Paso Horse and caballito de totora competitions, among others.
The Coat of arms of the Peruvian city of Trujillo was awarded on December 7, 1537 by Royal Decree issued by the King of Spain, Charles V. The shield consists of two columns of azure water, a king's crown on top surrounded by pearls and precious stones and two poles that embrace the columns K (Karolus initial, name of the King) and in the back of the shield a griffin (mythological creature half lion half eagle) facing right and embracing the shield.
It is white in the center and carries the coat of arms of the city, is hoisted on the official ceremonies of the Municipality of Trujillo in the main square of the city. Also is hoisted every December 29 to commemorate the proclamation of independence of Trujillo made in 1820.
The hymn was written by Ramiro Mendoza Sanchez and music by Ramiro Herrera Orbegoso. The municipality sets the hymn mainly through official civic ceremonies held in the city with the interpretation thereof by bands of musicians. The hymn expresses greetings and appreciation to the city through its history.
The history of Trujillo city has its beginning in ancient times with the formation in its territories of pre-Columbian cultures that established their towns in its current metropolitan area and then extended their domains along the northern coast of Peru.
In the territory now occupied by the city of Trujillo developed several pre-Columbian cultures as Cupisnique, the mochica and Chimú. That is why there are numerous archaeological sites that testify the development achieved by these people as the Temples of the Sun and Moon south of the city, the Huaca del Dragon or Rainbow and Huaca Esmeralda north, and so on. However, the main urban settlement in the area due to the Chimu culture has left its legacy as part of the architecture of the city of Chan Chan, which was his capital and where it is estimated dwelt in their time of greatest expansion of approximately 100,000 people whose remains are 5 km from downtown to the northwest of the current metropolitan area. These archaeological remains of these pre-Hispanic urban sites make it clear that the present city of Trujillo was founded on an ancestral territory populated by ancient civilizations, with the arrival of the Spanish who founded new cities transmitting their culture to establish the "Viceroyalty of Peru".
The Moche civilization flourished in northern Peru with its capital Huacas del Sol y de la Luna near actual Trujillo city from about 100 AD to 800 AD, during the Regional Development Epoch. They were likely a group of autonomous polities that shared a common elite culture, as seen in the rich iconography and monumental architecture that survive today. They are particularly noted for their elaborately painted ceramics, gold work, monumental constructions (huacas) and irrigation systems. Moche history may be broadly divided into three periods – the emergence of the Moche culture in Early Moche (AD 100–300), its expansion and florescence during Middle Moche (AD 300–600), and the urban nucleation and subsequent collapse in Late Moche (AD 500–750). Moche society was agriculturally based, with a significant level of investment in the construction of a network of irrigation canals for the diversion of river water to supply their crops. Their culture was sophisticated; and their artifacts express their lives, with detailed scenes of hunting, fishing, fighting, sacrifice, sexual encounters and elaborate ceremonies.
The Chimú were the residents of Chimor, with its capital at the city of Chan Chan, a large adobe city in the Valley of Moche of present-day Trujillo city. The culture arose about 900. The Inca ruler Tupac Inca Yupanqui led a campaign which conquered the Chimu around 1470 .
This was just fifty years before the arrival of the Spanish in the region. Consequently, Spanish chroniclers were able to record accounts of Chimu culture from individuals who had lived before the Inca conquest. Similarly, Archaeological evidence suggest Chimor grew out of the remnants of Moche culture; early Chimú pottery had some resemblance to that of the Moche. Their ceramics are all black, and their work in precious metals is very detailed and intricate. In the late Chimú, about 12,000 artisans lived and worked in Chan Chan alone. They engaged in fishing, agriculture, craft work, and trade. Artisans were forbidden to change their profession, and were grouped in the ciudadela according to their area of specialization. Archeologists have noted a dramatic increase in Chimú craft production, and they believe that artisans may have been brought to Chan Chan from another area taken as a result of Chimú conquest. As there is evidence of both metalwork and weaving in the same domestic unit, it is likely that both men and women were artisans. They engaged in fishing, agriculture, and metallurgy, and made ceramics and textiles (from cotton, llama, alpaca, and vicunas wool). People used reed fishing canoes, hunted, and traded using bronze coins.
Trujillo was one of the first cities in the Americas founded by the Spanish conquistadors although the surrounding area had been inhabited for thousands of years by indigenous peoples. According to historian Napoleón Cieza Burga the conquistador Diego de Almagro founded the first settlement on November 1534, calling it Trujillo of New Castilla, after the home city of Francisco Pizarro. It was founded among four Chimu settlements: Huanchaco, Huamán, Moche & Mampuesto, to create an alliance against the Incas. On November 23, 1537, King Charles I of Spain gave the town the rank of 'city' and the coat of arms that remains a symbol for the city, this made Trujillo be the first city in Peru to receive the coat of arms granted by him King of Spain. By 1544 Trujillo had around 300 homes and 1000 inhabitants, and an economy booming from the cultivation of sugar cane, wheat, and other food crops and the raising of livestock.
Trujillo welcomed a diverse array of religious orders from its foundation, resulting in a boom in church construction in the city during the 16th and 17th centuries. In 1577 Pope Gregory XIII created the Diocese of Trujillo and in 1616 construction work commenced on the cathedral.
On February 14, 1619, Trujillo was struck by an earthquake, resulting in the near-total destruction of the city and the deaths of around 400 its inhabitants. There followed a slow process of rebuilding and a devotion to St Valentine, on whose day the destruction had occurred. The Jesuits opened a seminary and school for education and the training of priests; they also served as missionaries to the indigenous peoples.
Due to the proximity of the city with the sea (about 4 km) and the danger of attack by pirates and privateers, It was built the Wall of Trujillo during the reign of Viceroy Melchor de Navarra and Rocafull and being the mayors of the city Bartolome Martinez and Fernando Ramirez Jarabeitia Orellana. This wall was built by Italian architect Joseph Formento, who began construction on February 19, 1687. Formento was based on design by Leonardo Da Vinci to the Italian city of Florence. The wall was designed of elliptical shape to save costs in its construction, which was completed in 1689. The wall reached a perimeter of 5.5 km and involved the use of more than 100,000 bricks. The defensive structure was composed of 15 bastions, 15 shades and 5 covers.
The cover of Huaman was oriented westward to the road to the village of the same name. The cover of Mansiche located to the north, giving way to the highway. The cover of Miraflores faced east. The cover of the Sierra, named after the road leading to this region. Finally the cover of Moche gave access for people coming from the south. In 1942, following the footsteps of the ancient wall, through a master plan, was built Spain Avenue around the area now called Historical Center of Trujillo.
In the latter half of the 17th century, severe droughts and pestilence caused a major economic crisis for the city, whose economic mainstay was providing food for the region. Trujillo regained prominence in the 18th century, in part due to the destruction of the city of Sana by flooding in 1720. Trujillo also suffered from flooding in 1701, 1728, 1720 and 1814, and further earthquakes in 1725 and 1759.
By 1760 an estimated 9200 people were living in the vicinity of the city. The foundation of the Municipality of Trujillo in 1779 coincided with the heyday of the city, although urban development remained incomplete, with numerous undeveloped lots within the city walls. Nevertheless, Trujillo was regarded as one of the most important cities in Northern Peru during the colonial era.
Influenced by the liberal ideas of its educational institutions, Trujillo became a principle centre of Peruvian republican sentiments. Led by city major and the intendant José Bernardo de Tagle from the city of Trujillo the intendancy declared its independence from Spain on December 29, 1820.
Between 1821 and 1825 the Trujillo region was the only stable and productive land within the nascent republic. In 1823 Trujillo took on the role of the first capital city of the Republic of Peru. It was from Trujillo on July 19, 1823 that the Peruvian Congress reiterated the invitation to Simon Bolivar to join the war of independence.
In 1824 the city received the liberating army of Simon Bolivar, and became the seat of government once again, making it the only city to have twice been made capital of Peru.
The years following the revolution saw the a growth in the economic influence of the city, compensating for a loss of political power to Lima, which instead suffered from the resulting political turmoil. The Moche and Chicama valleys emerged as new economic enclaves for the sugar industry, with land increasingly concentrated in large estates created the new "agricultural aristocracy" linked to national political power. A policy of free trade and openness to foreign investment lead to an influx of Europeans, principally from England and Germany. By then, Trujillo housed 15,000 people and began to grow beyond the city walls. New architectural styles were adopted, influenced by French and English Romanticism.
During the war with Chile between 1879 and 1883, Trujillo contributed troops towards national defence. Trujillo, although not the scene of the battle, suffered from occupation by Chilean troops and their plundering of the surrounding countryside.
History records three important facts that make this heroic city is considered the "First City Independent of Peru." The first was the agreement to proclaim the Independence of Trujillo. Ceremony held on December 24, 1820 at the historical "Casa de la Emancipación" (home of Emancipation). The second was the signing of the declaration of independence that took place in the chapel of college "Seminario de San Carlos y San Marcelo" and the proclamation of independence to an open council meeting in the "Plaza de Armas" (main square), on December 29, 1820. Finally, on January 6, 1821 ratifying the agreement and the proclamation of the independence of this city, as stated in the document called "Libro rojo" of Trujillo council containing the records of this between 1820 and 1823.With this historical fact was released from the government of Spain to almost all of northern Peru because the government of Trujillo city covered what is now Tumbes, Piura, Lambayeque, La Libertad, Cajamarca, San Martín and Amazonas. "My people. From this time for the unanimous will of the people, Trujillo is Free. I put our fate and that of people under the protection of Heaven !Long live the homeland! Long live independence! Were the words uttered in public by the Marquis of Torre Tagle. From that moment would begin independence from Spanish rule throughout Peru.
The Provisional Regulations given by General San Martin in 1821 created the "Department of Trujillo", on the basis of colonial quartermaster, this demarcation was reinforced by the first "Constitution of Peru", 1823. For its size and economic wealth, "Department of Trujillo" was, between 1821 and 1825, the only stable and productive land that could have ordered the nascent republic, Trujillo was almost half the country and its capital city a prosperous city and safe, the same as for their efforts in favor of the war of emancipation, the January 31, 1822 received by decree of San Martin Protector, the title of "Meritorious and Fielísima City to the Homeland" and the municipality of the city, that time called cabildo, was given the dictation of "honorable".
In 1823, after the creation of the Republic of Peru, completed the protectorate of Jose de San Martin, and before the break of the royal troops took the city of Lima, the first President of Peru, Don Jose de la Riva Agüero together Sánchez Carrión prepared a project resolution naming Trujillo as provisional capital of the country what it occurred in a short period that year.
In 1824 the city received the liberating army of Simon Bolivar who, having assumed the government of the country, he established temporary government of the country in Trujillo, on March 8, 1824.
The "Court of Appeals" created by decree of February 12, 1821 by Jose de San Martin, with a jurisdiction that reached the territories of the present departments of Cajamarca, Piura, Lambayeque, Amazonas, then known as the Chachapoyas and Huamachuco then known as the present province of Sanchez Carrion, based in the city of Trujillo, created to replace the Royal Court. On March 26, 1824 Simón Bolivar settled in Trujillo's first Superior Court of Justice being the first one that had the Republic of Peru, as the highest court of justice, with powers of Supreme Court, under the name Northern Superior Court.
By the end of 19th century the five entrances had disappeared from the city so it was that during this time, the Wall of Trujillo was torn down and allowed the growth of the city, this urban expansion allowed the establishment of the neighborhoods of Chicago, the Union and Pedro Muniz. During the administration of Don Victor Larco Herrera as mayor the city began upgrading works such as construction of City Hall, the arrangement and embellishment of the Plaza de Armas and the atrium of the Cathedral . It also built the double track to the resort of Buenos Aires, Larco avenue current, which expanded the city urban planning perspective. Another project was the renovation of the Municipal Theater.
From the 1980 Trujillo takes on the aspect and behavior of a metropolitan area particularly dynamic, by which time the growth of the city and adjoining districts, had produced conurbation of these, so, for the decade of the 1980s nascent Trujillo metropolitan area consisted of the integrated urban districts of Trujillo, El Porvenir and Florencia de Mora, staying as discontinuous integrated zone districts "Víctor Larco Herrera" and "La Esperanza" for 1981 the city already had 403.337 inhabitants. Also from the 1980 projects are promoted as Trujillo Industrial Park, located on the north side of town, in the present La Esperanza district.
With the advent of the 1990s, joined the city of Trujillo continued the districts of La Esperanza and Victor Larco Herrera and horizontal growth of the city, resulted in the districts of Moche, Trujillo, Salaverry, Laredo and become part of the area integrated batch of the city. He went to the first half of the decade of 1990, with the emergence of the town center "El Milagro" in Huanchaco, joined to La Esperanza district, and increasing interdependence with the districts of Moche and Laredo, which was cemented Trujillo as the new metropolis of Peru, telling then with a population of 589.314 inhabitants.
The latter half of the 20th century saw the expansion of the city due to a combination of rural-urban migration and the consolidation of surrounding districts into the Trujillo metropolitan area.
The month of July 1932 saw Trujillo once again at the centre of one of the most important episodes in the history of the Republic of Peru, the "Trujillo Revolution of 1932", which cost the lives of many citizens. Although this year came to be known as the "Year of barbarism", it would also mark the political identity of the city during the second half of the 20th century.
With the experience of the last two decades of the 20th century when the city experienced an excessive disordered growth while, mostly horizontal, increasing the costs for providing basic services to the population, the Provincial Municipality of Trujillo created the "Plan Trujillo Metropolitan Development – 2010 ", known as" PLANDEMETRU ", approved by city Ordinance No. 05-95-MPT on November 30, 1995, through which is planned growth and development of the city by 2010 and now the lines of development of the metropolis is governed by the "Strategic Plan for Integral Development and Sustainable Trujillo to 2015" containing general guidelines for the development of the city for year 2015.
In November 2010, Trujillo was the first city in Latin America and the Caribbean to be chosen by the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) to develop the pilot project Trujillo: Sustainable City in the platform "Emerging and Sustainable Cities of the Inter-American Development Bank". This project includes plan of action on climate change, which will be held on emissions inventory provides Trujillo, review the list of investment projects and introduce them variable climate. According to Fidel Jaramillo, representative of the Inter-American Development Bank, (IDB) chose this city as the first driver in Latin America to develop a new initiative. Trujillo's plan to conceive from other perspectives such as fiscal and financial sustainability, which is basic, but also from environmental sustainability and quality of life. The IDB is developing relevant projects in coordination with the Provincial Municipality of Trujillo. Trujillo city in 2012 has begun to develop, with the support of IBM company, the project called "Smart City" that will try to focus technologically two problems in Trujillo as public safety and transportation.
Trujillo is located at an altitude of 34 meters on a coastal strip west of the province of Trujillo, in the old valley of "Chimor" today known as the Moche or Santa Catalina Valley. Its main square is located at 8 ° 6 '3 " South latitude ; to 79 ° 1' 34" west longitude at an altitude of 31.16 meters above sea level and lies 4.40 km of the Pacific Ocean, in a straight line along Larco Avenue.
|Climate chart (explanation)|
This city is known as La Ciudad de la Eterna Primavera (The city of the everlasting spring), because of its sunny and pleasant weather year-round. The International Spring Festival in early October attracts visitors from all over Peru and the world; is a land of mild climate and low rainfall, with moderate temperatures ranging between 14 ° and 30 °C due to the Humboldt Current. Trujillo has a warm climate in summer days and cool and pleasant during the night by the sea breeze effect. It has an average temperature of 18 °C, and the extreme minimum and maximum temperatures fluctuate around 17 °C and 28 °C in summer, respectively. Presents rains are light, sporadic and occur during the afternoon or evening. In the area of Trujillo, the Andes and its foothills are very close to the coast, and having lower elevation relative to the Andes Mountains of central and southern Peru, encourage the flow of moist air from the region the Amazon, which converges with the breezes of the west side, favoring the summer season a higher frequency of light showers. According to climate classification of Thornthwaite, city of Trujillo would correspond to an arid climate type, semi and humid with no rain during all seasons.
However, Trujillo maintains a mild climate and warm with temperatures around 19 °C for most of the year, which Trujillo is internationally known as City of Eternal Spring. The part closest to the sea presented naturally, haze during the morning and usually, the temperature is lower than in the central and upper parts of the city. However, when it presents the phenomenon of El Niño, the climate varies, mainly rainfall, with less intensity than in regions located north of the city, and the temperature can also be lifted.
In the summer months: in mid-December, January, February, March and mid April, recorded maximum temperatures averaging 22 °C, 23 °C, 25 °C, 25 °C and 23 °C respectively and recorded temperatures average minimum of 18 °C, 19 °C, 21 °C, 20 °C and 19 °C respectively and with some rain at night. In other months, are recorded average temperatures between 20 °C and 17 °C. Between June and September, its countryside are moistened by mild drizzle and it’s recorded the minimum temperature of 7 °C.
|Climate data for Trujillo (Peru)|
|Highest Recorded Temperature (°C)||31||32||32||32||32||28||28||28||28||28||27||31||
|Average High Temperature (°C)||23||25||25||23||22||21||20||19||19||20||21||22||
|Average Low Temperature (°C)||19||21||20||19||18||17||16||16||16||16||17||18||
|Lowest Recorded Temperature (°C)||10||12||12||15||8||12||12||11||7||12||7||11||
|Most Rain Reported in a Month (mm)||20||20||60||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||
|Average Morning Relative Humidity(%)||89||88||89||89||89||89||89||89||90||90||89||89||
|Source : Weatherbase|
Trujillo is crossed by the Moche river that passes by southern part of the city, its waters have been used since ancient times by the Mochicas and Chimus who inhabited this area, those who took its waters to irrigate their fields; today the river is part of the Countryside of Moche and waters continue to be used in it. The river empties into the Pacific Ocean right on the boundary between the districts of Moche and Victor Larco Herrera.
Trujillo is set on a coastal plain of the La Libertad Region and has a gentle topography so its terrain is very hilly, it sits on a plateau of the Trujillo Province. The low-lying areas of the city are very close to the Pacific Ocean and the higher elevations are close to the Andean foothills that occur in the area.
About the spatial distribution of the population of the city and the urban continuum of Trujillo in 2007, there are two positions:
According to the report "Sociodemographic Profile" issued by the INEI In 2007, the city had a population of up to 682,834 people, with an annual average growth rate of 2.1%; According to the report "Peru: Recent Internal Migration and Cities System 2001 – 2007", in 2007 the figure was 709,566 inhabitants.
Moreover, considering the studies of urban development of the "PLANDET", the city is formed by the five districts that make up the conurbation of the districts of Trujillo, La Esperanza, El Porvenir, Florencia de Mora and Victor Larco Herrera in addition these also the minor municipality called "El Milagro" in the jurisdiction of Huanchaco district, which make up the urban continuum of Trujillo city; and the urban area known as "Trujillo Metropolitano" comprises the urban continuum and the urban and rural towns of the districts of the metropolitan area including such as are Huanchaco, Laredo, Moche and Salaverry.
In recent decades, urban growth is largely due to Trujillo population increase of migrant origin, the main contributors of population (1993 census), the interior provinces of La Libertad as Otuzco (15.8%), Santiago de Chuco (9.3%), Ascope (9%) and Sánchez Carrión (5.2%), while 16% contributed Cajamarca and Ancash with 5%. The population of Trujillo is distributed according to Plandet as follows:
|Municipalities of the Metropolis
Trujillo and its population in year 2007
(pop. / km²)
|Distance Approx. to
|Victor Larco Herrera||18,02||55.781||2.846,17||3||5|
|Florencia de Mora||1,99||40.014||18.802,5||85||5|
|*Census made by the INEI|
In the following table of population distribution can be seen the demographic evolution of Trujillo metropolitan by districts since 1940 until 2013.
|Demographic evolution of the Metropolis Trujillo since 1940 to 2013|
|Population by year|
|2. La Esperanza||*||*||42113||62550||105361||151845||176293|
|3. El Porvenir||*||*||58331||77198||80698||140507||175373|
|4. Victor Larco Herrera||*||4565||14140||21001||42169||55781||62589|
|6. Florencia de Mora||*||*||*||*||35806||40014||41968|
|Census made by the INEI
Estimated Population-INEI.* The asterisk sign indicates in that year the district had not been created yet.
In the city the predominant religion is Christianity, inherited from the Spanish culture since colonial era. In this topic there are different congregations that profess the Christian faith as the Catholic Church, Jehovah's Witnesses, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints or also called Mormons, the Pentecostal Church, etc. All these Christian congregations have their temples in different parts of the city. In the historical center of Trujillo dominates the existence of temples of the Catholic Church such as the cathedral city located in the Plaza de Armas of Trujillo. One of the most representative events of Christianity in the city organized by the Catholic Church each year is Corpus Christi which gathers a large number of Christians in the Plaza Mayor of the city. About the Catholicism is the predominant Church in the districts that make up the city, according to census data in 2007. In the city, 76.9% of the population over 12 years is Catholic, 15.1% is Protestant, 3.9% other churches, and 4.1% is not linked to any church of a universe of 541,056 people.
In the 19th century, the city of Trujillo greatly expanded due to extensive irrigated agriculture, with high production and profits from the sugarcane industry. Today, asparagus and shoes are some of the main products of its metropolitan area. The irrigated lands of the Moche River Valley produce sugarcane, rice, and asparagus. Industries in the city include the sugar refineries, knitting mills, breweries and the shoe industry. Among the internationally known products of Trujillo, asparagus is exported to neighboring countries, Europe and the United States. The areas around Trujillo are among the largest exporters of white asparagus in the world. Peru is the world’s leading exporter of asparagus, followed by China and Mexico.
Trujillo is the most important economic center of northern Peru; it is an inland commercial and transport center for the surrounding farming areas. Its numerous shopping malls, supermarkets, department stores, and similar amenities make Trujillo a modern city.
In recent years another important economic sector in the city is the construction industry. According to statistical information provided by the "Institute of Construction and Development of the Peruvian Chamber of Construction" between 2006 and May 2012 construction activity in Trujillo grew by 500%. The study reveals that in 2006 were built 92770 m2 and the first months of 2012 the figure rose to 437440 m2, mainly due to the increased amount of square meters per house, likewise states that the total built in so far this year, 84% is housing construction.
Trujillo is an agricultural, commercial and transport center due to production areas that account. The expansion of irrigated agriculture caused an expansive growth in the city, especially agribusiness sugar cane, which had as its ultimate expression in the Agricultural Cooperative Sugar Casa Grande (Casa Grande today Agroindustirial Company SA).
Among its most popular products internationally, highlighting the studs that are exported mainly to neighboring countries, USA, Europe. The momentum that has been taking the "Special Project Chavimochic" which includes the irrigation of the valleys of Chao, Viru, Moche, and later will include Chicama, has managed the successful export of many agricultural and agroindustrial products, which include artichokes, peppers, avocado, mango, etc.
Chavimochic Special Project is a work of hydraulic engineering, this irrigation system extends throughout much of the coast of the La Libertad Region, on the north coast of Peru, it is designed to irrigate the valleys of Chao, Viru, Moche and Chicama. In 2012 It is already advanced up to its second stage in Moche valley.
It consists of the shoe makers and other leather products. It is classified within the manufacturing sector and is composed of micro and small enterprises, characterized by abundant labor demand and intermediate goods. Formally registered in 1300 SMEs (small and medium enterprises), which provide a significant 11% to the sector. They have achieved to sell their products domestically and characterize Trujillo as a shoe manufacturer city . Has the distinction of having formed a business cluster that provides its own dynamic of production and marketing. Spatially, 53% of SMEs are located in the district of El Porvenir. Trujillo concentrates 24% of the activity, and finally La Esperanza and Florencia de Mora concentrated 10% each. Tanning SMEs are preferentially located in the bottom of La Esperanza.
The city has the largest commercial activity in the region motivated mainly by agribusiness, industria of footwear, metal engineering, education, etc. Some of the main retail centers in the city are:
According to a study published in 2010 by the magazine Peru Económico some of the most representative brands of Trujillo and that have regional impact are:
3. Embutidos Razzeto, the brand is a company of meat and sausage has one of the largest industrial plants in the country.
4. Caja Trujillo, is a trademark of the largest financial company locally providing financial attention mainly to small and medium entrepreneurs in the SME sector.
6. GN, is a brand of biscuits.
7. Jano’s, is a mark of fast food in the city .
9. Transportes Linea, is a mark of passenger transportation.
10. TRC, Transportes Rodrigo Carranza is the most important mark of companies in heavy load transportation in the region and with "TRC Express" enters the passenger transportation. Its main base is located south of the city in Moche district and has branches in different cities of the country.
Trujillo is the capital of La Libertad region as such is the seat of regional government and its technical organs of government line as are the regional offices of the scope of its jurisdiction, so the regional policies of this government are deployed from this city for use in its territory corresponding. The city also hosts various regional directorates of the ministries that make up the country's public administration. Trujillo is also headquarters of the III-Territorial Police Directorate, as executing agency for the National Police of Peru.
The city, capital of La Libertad Region and the Province of Trujillo, is governed by the Provincial Municipality of Trujillo, which is governed by the provisions of the organic law of municipalities and that it has jurisdiction throughout the province . There is limited authority to the city and there is no governing body of the city itself, in that sense, the municipalities of the metropolitan districts that make up the city have jurisdiction in matters relating to their own districts.
The city is governed by a provincial mayor elected by popular vote every four years. The mayor is responsible for the municipal public administration and community, is the political representative of the municipality of the city and has political influences at the provincial level, so the guidelines of their policies are aimed primarily at the territorial level.
Trujillo is home to the Superior Court of La Libertad, that was the first Superior Court of Justice established in the country during the government of Simon Bolivar on March 26, 1824 under the name of Superior Court of North. Is the governing body of the Judicial District of La Libertad. According to Peru's judicial system. The city has the highest judicial burden of the region La Libertad.
Tourism is a major industry in Trujillo due to the city's proximity to important sites where the Moche and Chimu civilizations evolved. These civilizations had highly skilled artisans, and many of their artifacts having been found during archaeological digs in the city. Nearby ruins include the Chimu adobe city of Chan Chan, the world's largest city built from that material. It is sometimes called Ciudad de la Luna (City of the Moon) because the people worshipped the moon; or de las Largas Murallas (of the Long Walls). In size and complexity, it has been compared with Teotihuacan in Mexico, and the ancient cities of Egypt. Other nearby ruins are the Moche ruins of Huaca del Sol, Huaca de la Luna, Huaca del Dragón o Arco Iris, Huaca Esmeralda and El Brujo.
Trujillo aspires to be designated a World Heritage Site, because of the proximity of both cultures and its historical colonial city centre, whose historic casonas (mansions) attract many visitors. The mansions and manors of Trujillo are distinguished for their solemn and austere facades. Inside, their halls are overflowing with ornaments.
Trujillo's wrought-iron window railings are a unique feature of the mansions. The House of Ganoza-Chopitea (casa Ganoza) has a polychromatic front in the baroque style, crowned by a rococo frontispiece and two lions. It is the city's most representative example of casonas architecture. Another is the House of Mayorazgo, which was built in the early years of the city and holds one of Peru's greatest numismatic collections. The revolutionary leader Simón Bolívar lived in a house on the Plaza de Armas.
The world-famous beach Huanchaco, a surfing destination, is located just north of Trujillo.
Currently the Moche Route is a tourist destination starting in what was formerly the seat of government of the Moche culture in the Temples of the Sun and the Moon, about 4 miles south of the historic center of Trujillo, and consequently the "Route Moche "can be conceptualized as one in which the tourist can experience the ancient Mochica traditions that endure to this day and which are reflected in the excellence of its cuisine, the work of its people and its beautiful beaches, this in a universe with its own identity. The route covers a number of places that were part of the dominions of the Moche kingdom in its heyday.
The historic centre of Trujillo occupies an area of 133.5ha and consists of a total of 1.783 lots, grouped in 72 blocks are located within the area that was known as the "Fence Trujillo," and was originally defined by the wall of the ciudad. Currently the historic center of Trujillo is bordered by the España Avenue, it may find many buildings dating from the colonial and republican periods, between attractions offered by the historic center of Trujillo we have the following:
|Tourism in Trujillo city|
Trujillo, has always been the capital of a region whose cultural traditions dating back to at least twelve thousand years old. The existing archaeological sites like the Temple of the Sun and Moon and the city of Chan Chan demonstrate the cities vocation of cultural capital. Trujillo now emerges as a cultural capital, service center and equipment, with its universities, schools and basic technology, they are developing a comprehensive capital and a base for sustained innovations for development.
The city has more than 833 schools, 83% of schools are concentrated in urban continuum, corresponding to 50% to the district of Trujillo. The concentration of educational institutions in the district of Trujillo is primarily for the secondary level (53%) where there is a greater presence of the private sector. The expansion of state educational infrastructure and increasing participation of the private sector in education has allowed progress in educational coverage ciudad. Some primary and secondary schools most representative of the city of Trujillo are:
National University of Trujillo
Trujillo is home to many higher education institutions, including the majority of the universities and vocational institutes in northern Peru. The most recognized universities are the National University of Trujillo, one of the most important universities in Perú, which was created on May 10, 1824 by Simon Bolivar and from their classrooms graduated poets: César Vallejo who was one of the leading representatives of the North Group, Alejandro Romualdo, political philosophers: Antenor Orrego, political ideologues: Víctor Raúl Haya de la Torre(APRA), Luciano Castillo (Socialist Party of Peru), economists Luis Alva, Pacific Huaman, Cesar Liza, Jaime Verastegui, writers: Ciro Alegría, Eduardo Gonzalez Viaña.
|People related with National University of Trujillo (UNT)|
Other well-known universities are Antenor Orrego Private University, Cesar Vallejo University, Catholic University of Trujillo, Private University of the North which belongs to Laurete International University of Laureate Education being the second International University in Peru, Private University of Trujillo, Leonardo Da Vinci University, Alas Peruanas University, the archdiocesan seminary, and some other regions universities established in the city.
Among principal Institutes of Technology in the city are TECSUP, SENATI, SENCICO, Nueva Esperanza, Leonardo Da Vinci and Institute of the North.
The city also has the Regional Conservatory of Music "Carlos Valderrama" which has university status since 2011 offering musical career training. Also in the city there is the School of Arts Macedonio de la Torre founded by the painter Pedro Azabache Bustamante, where students are formed as artists in various fields of art such as sculpture and painting.
Located a few blocks from the Plaza de Armas with its coffee bar is one of the most splendid of the city and unique in the country, owned by renowned painter Gerardo Chavez, here you can find toys to mid-20th century.
Another museum belonging to the painter Gerardo Chavez, is located in the urbanization Semirustica El Bosque, the museum displays works of prominent artists, both national and foreign, and sculptures but also find a coffee bar and souvenir sales, is the first museum of modern art in Peru.
Is considered as a Civic Sanctuary of the city: here the Marquis Torre Tagle conceived the independence of Trujillo in 1820. Also here was Hosted the First Constitutional Congress and the Government Palace with Riva Agüero.Nowadays it hosts cultural exhibitions.It's located on the corner of Jiron Gamarra with Jiron Pizarro streets; is a traditional cultural center for excellence in Trujillo, here are art exhibitions and special ceremonies are performed in the central courtyard. With a well-restored house belonging to Banco Continental, is a must for all tourists seeking culture in Trujillo.
Located at the foot of the Huaca de la Luna in the Moche District, this modern museum was opened in 2010 and it shows the recent archaeological discoveries of the Moche ceremonial religious center. Next to the Mochica monuments is a great touristic circuit for not stop visiting in Trujillo.
The museum is located at the foot of Chan Chan, the largest mud city in Latin America are shown in the most important findings found in the Chimu city as well as studies on political and religious division.
|Trujillo's historic heritage|
Trujillo city has many national and international festivals. Festivals and events occurring regularly include:
A festival of typical dance is very representative of the city, the national competition is organized by the Club Libertad and takes place the last week of January, couples of dancers from different parts of the country and the world are prepared every year for contest the top of the different categories of competition that draws thousands of tourists every year. It also highlights the marinera parade also with the participation of Peruvian paso horses and typical riders called chalanes through the main streets of the historic center.
Is considered by some as the most representative festival of the city that lives up to the nickname he carries. The festival is one of the most important in Peru and is done in early October of each year, by the Lions Club of La Libertad Region. The first festival was held in 1950, and has been held annually since. The flower festival has a rich and varied program of over a hundred activities to meet the tastes and interests of Trujillo people and thousands of domestic and foreign tourists. The activities are carried out for a month in which the city takes on a festive environment, thousands of domestic and foreign tourists arriving in the town for various events like the coronation of the Queen of Spring, competition horses step, the parade of foreign queens and Spring Corso through the main avenues of the city, where visitors revel in the maneuvers of the Guaripolas. The festival closes with the spring parade or corso and a private party organized by the Lions Club.
Held in the resort of Las Delicias in the district of Moche on March 14, 15 and 16, is a feast day and it has been a tradition with a strong Spanish influence, which are enjoyed various activities for adults, youth and children, party hosts are Don Jose and Dona Josefa and Ms Maja, the event begins with the description of characters, activities, bars, flamenco dancing, etc. This festival is accompanied by a procession of the patron Saint Joseph, the fashion show, the bullfight, the parade of characters, and toromatch pamplonada in which involved several teams from other departments. Some houses are become in Spanish bars decorated with motifs like flags, grimaldas and posters.
Trujillo is considered cradle of Peruvian paso horse and in the city there are contests organized by the Association of Breeders and Owners of Paso Horses in La Libertad, the best known and most important are The National Competition Paso Horses being done within the framework of the International Spring Festival made between September and October and in the Festival and International Competition of Marinera in January. Peruvian government has declared this kind of horses as Nation's cultural heritage.
The festival took place from the early 20th century in the District of Huanchaco. District residents were emulating the famous Venetian Carnival, when, years later, the carnival was organized by the Huanchaco Club. The carnival has many activities including the crowning of the queen, surf contest, Luau party, Creativity in the Sand. The carnival parade among others, takes place in early February.
The International version began performing since 1977 at the Municipal Theatre with the participation of delegations from many countries of the world being well known, the national version is made with the participation of delegations representing various regions of country.
The city celebrates on April on every year the most important beauty event of the region. Every province of the region is represented by a miss that contest for the miss La Libertad title. This event has been realized in various locations including historical places as the Plaza de armas, the city of Chan Chan, Huanchaco beach etc.
Trujillo's gastronomy has a tasty and varied variety of dishes, in some cases ancient tradition, are prepared on the basis of fish, shellfish, seaweed, birds, livestock, land, etc., are counted in more than a hundred typical foods. The names of the dishes are almost always original and even natives. Today with the rise of Peruvian food in the city have established many institutes of gastronomy.
Among the most representative dishes include:
The music and dance that represents to the city is the Marinera, and the city is considered as Capital of Marinera, this dance and choreographic and musical forms in its various regional varieties, has been declared as national cultural heritage. The city has numerous dance academies where they grow this traditional dance, some since very young, also in these academies are preparing many participants from the city to the national competition of this dance held every year in January.
The city is connected to all the main coastal cities by the Pan-American Highway.
Important to the city's transportation network is the Carlos Martínez de Pinillos International Airport located in Huanchaco District northwest of Trujillo metropolitan area.
The port town of Salaverry located at southwest Trujillo city is one of most commercial ports of Peru. Salaverry port is located some 258 nautical miles North of Callao. Its good linking with Trujillo (12 km) and the Panamerican Highway (8 km) makes the port of easy access by road to the shippers and receivers (mainly fishmeal, fertilizers, mineral concentrates, rice and sugar) located within its influence area. This port has great commercial activity due to agricultural exports. Another port town is Chicama (Puerto Malabrigo) are used for maritime connection. with the world.
According to studies by the Municipality of Trujillo in the city, it is estimated that there is a weekly demand of 29.285 passengers traveling by bus outside of Trujillo and 28.580 passengers are arriving weekly to the city by the same transportation, so that the municipality plans to build a bus station starting mid-2012. As part of the shares of the project "Sustainable Cities" that is executing the Municipality of Trujillo in agreement with the Inter-American Development Bank, It has been presented a "Plan of mobility for Trujillo ", it consists of four main projects: implementation of Segregated cycle facilities, pedestrianization of the historic center, the construction of the green ring of España avenue and the implementation of Light rail for the city.
In Trujillo city are available virtually all existing communications services that can be used to transmit or exchange information permanently from public telephones and internet booths up to wireless communication networks.
Trujillo concentrates much of the entire media of the La Libertad Region, in television, radio, print and communication services through the internet and fixed and mobile telephony. There are also mail and courier service companies locally, nationally and internationally as Perú Mail Express, Serpost and others.
Among the newspapers published in the city of Trujillo; one of the largest circulation newspaper is La Industria, also publishes the newspaper Nuevo Norte and the evening newspaper that is called Satélite.
Trujillo is the headquarters of several television channels some with a presence in several cities in the northern region. The following table shows the TV channels based in Trujillo.
|TV stations in Trujillo city|
|UCV Satelital||15||Antena Norte||35|
|Ozono TV||41||TV Mundo||27|
|Frecuencia TV||55||SOL TV||21|
|CTV Televisión||45||UPAO TV||39|
From Trujillo several stations emit their radio signal type AM and FM . Following is a table with some FM stations.
|Radio stations in Trujillo city|
|Radio Nova||105.1 MHz||Frecuencia 100||101.9 MHz|
|Stereo Diplomat Radio||92.1 MHz||96 Bravaza||96.1 MHz|
|Ozono Radio||104.1 MHz||Radio La Grande||99.1 MHz|
|Radio Rumba||99.9 MHz||PeruFolkRadio|
Some of the most popular sports in the city are volleyball, basketball, swimming, karate, surfing practiced mostly in Huanchaco beach, sandboarding, etc. The most popular sport and is practiced in Trujillo is soccer, now represented in the Peruvian primera division of soccer by club Cesar Vallejo University One of the clubs historic town is the Carlos A. Mannucci currently in Peruvian segunda división. The main sports arena in the professional league for soccer is estadio Mansiche, the main stage for volleyball is the coliseo Gran Chimu both located in the Sports complex Mansiche.
The Huanchaco longboard world is a surfing competition takes place since 2010 in the El Elio Beach in Huanchaco and brings together leading surfers of several countries of the world.
The Trujillo 2013 Bolivarian Games (Spanish: Juegos Bolivarianos), officially the XVII Bolivarian Games, will be a major international multi-sport event that will be held from November 16–30, 2013 in Trujillo city. The commission of the Bolivarian Sports Organization (ODEBO) traveled to the city in early 2011 to make a visual inspection of its facilities, the review found that Trujillo has good conditions to develop the games, so the city will host the Bolivarian Games of 2013, confirmation of this headquarters was made public on February 7, 2011 in Rio de Janeiro. Approximately 5,000 athletes from 11 or 12 nations are expected to participate in 36 sports.
The public company for water supply and sanitation in the city and so La Libertad Region is SEDALIB which is formed by shareholders of municipalities of the Region. In electricity sector the company that supplies is called Hidrandina.
Some of the principal health centers are the following:
Trujillo from 1940 to 1955.
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