Portal:Mathematics ▪ Sale

## The Mathematics Portal

Mathematics is the study of numbers, quantity, space, structure, and change. Mathematicians seek out patterns and formulate new conjectures. Mathematicians resolve the truth or falsity of conjectures by mathematical proofs, which are arguments sufficient to convince other mathematicians of their validity. The research required to solve mathematical problems can take years or even centuries of sustained inquiry. However, mathematical proofs are less formal and painstaking than proofs in mathematical logic. Since the pioneering work of Giuseppe Peano (1858–1932), David Hilbert (1862–1943), and others on axiomatic systems in the late 19th century, it has become customary to view mathematical research as establishing truth by rigorous deduction from appropriately chosen axioms and definitions. When those mathematical structures are good models of real phenomena, then mathematical reasoning often provides insight or predictions.

Through the use of abstraction and logical reasoning, mathematics developed from counting, calculation, measurement, and the systematic study of the shapes and motions of physical objects. Practical mathematics has been a human activity for as far back as written records exist. Rigorous arguments first appeared in Greek mathematics, most notably in Euclid's Elements. Mathematics developed at a relatively slow pace until the Renaissance, when mathematical innovations interacting with new scientific discoveries led to a rapid increase in the rate of mathematical discovery that continues to the present day.

Galileo Galilei (1564–1642) said, "The universe cannot be read until we have learned the language and become familiar with the characters in which it is written. It is written in mathematical language, and the letters are triangles, circles and other geometrical figures, without which means it is humanly impossible to comprehend a single word. Without these, one is wandering about in a dark labyrinth". Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855) referred to mathematics as "the queen of sciences". The mathematician Benjamin Peirce (1809–1880) called the discipline, "the science that draws necessary conclusions". David Hilbert said of it: "We are not speaking here of arbitrariness in any sense. Mathematics is not like a game whose tasks are determined by arbitrarily stipulated rules. Rather, it is a conceptual system possessing internal necessity that can only be so and by no means otherwise." Albert Einstein (1879–1955) stated that "as far as the laws of mathematics refer to reality, they are not certain; and as far as they are certain, they do not refer to reality".

Mathematics is used throughout the world as an essential tool in many fields, including natural science, engineering, medicine, and the social sciences. Applied mathematics, the branch of mathematics concerned with application of mathematical knowledge to other fields, inspires and makes use of new mathematical discoveries and sometimes leads to the development of entirely new mathematical disciplines, such as statistics and game theory. Mathematicians also engage in pure mathematics, or mathematics for its own sake, without having any application in mind. There is no clear line separating pure and applied mathematics, and practical applications for what began as pure mathematics are often discovered.

There are approximately 29075 mathematics articles in Wikipedia.

View new selections below (purge)

## Selected article

 A labeled graph on 6 vertices and 7 edges Image credit: User:Booyabazooka

Informally speaking, a graph is a set of objects called points, nodes, or vertices connected by links called lines or edges. In a proper graph, which is by default undirected, a line from point A to point B is considered to be the same thing as a line from point B to point A. In a digraph, short for directed graph, the two directions are counted as being distinct arcs or directed edges. Typically, a graph is depicted in diagrammatic form as a set of dots (for the points, vertices, or nodes), joined by curves (for the lines or edges). Graphs have applications in both mathematics and computer science, and form the basic object of study in graph theory.

Applications of graph theory are generally concerned with labeled graphs and various specializations of these. Many problems of practical interest can be represented by graphs. The link structure of a website could be represented by a directed graph: the vertices are the web pages available at the website and a directed edge from page A to page B exists if and only if A contains a link to B. A graph structure can be extended by assigning a weight to each edge of the graph. Graphs with weights, or weighted graphs, are used to represent structures in which pairwise connections have some numerical values. For example if a graph represents a road network, the weights could represent the length of each road. A digraph with weighted edges in the context of graph theory is called a network. Networks have many uses in the practical side of graph theory, network analysis (for example, to model and analyze traffic networks).

## Picture of the month

Credit: John Reid

Animation of the act of unrolling a circle's circumference, illustrating the ratio π.

## Did you know...

 Showing 9 items out of 66 More did you know

## WikiProjects

The Mathematics WikiProject is the center for mathematics-related editing on Wikipedia. Join the discussion on the project's talk page.

Project pages

Essays

Subprojects

Related projects

## Index of mathematics articles

 ARTICLE INDEX: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 0-9 MATHEMATICIANS: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

## Popular search requests

Portal:Mathematics is an object of interest for many people. For example, the people often search for Portal:Mathematics website, Portal:Mathematics blog, Portal:Mathematics online, Portal:Mathematics information, Portal:Mathematics photo, Portal:Mathematics picture, Portal:Mathematics video, Portal:Mathematics movie, Portal:Mathematics history, Portal:Mathematics news, Portal:Mathematics facts, Portal:Mathematics description, Portal:Mathematics detailed info, Portal:Mathematics features, Portal:Mathematics manual, Portal:Mathematics instructions, Portal:Mathematics comparison, Portal:Mathematics book, Portal:Mathematics story, Portal:Mathematics article, Portal:Mathematics review, Portal:Mathematics feedbacks, Portal:Mathematics selection, Portal:Mathematics data, Portal:Mathematics address, Portal:Mathematics phone number, download Portal:Mathematics, Portal:Mathematics reference, Portal:Mathematics wikipedia, Portal:Mathematics facebook, Portal:Mathematics twitter, Portal:Mathematics 2013, Portal:Mathematics 2014, Portal:Mathematics in the United States, Portal:Mathematics USA, Portal:Mathematics US, Portal:Mathematics in United Kingdom, Portal:Mathematics UK, Portal:Mathematics in Canada, Portal:Mathematics in Australia, etc.

Portal:Mathematics is also an object of commercial interest. For example, many people are interested in Portal:Mathematics offers, Portal:Mathematics buy, Portal:Mathematics sell, Portal:Mathematics sale, Portal:Mathematics discounts, discounted Portal:Mathematics, Portal:Mathematics coupon, Portal:Mathematics promo code, Portal:Mathematics order, to order Portal:Mathematics online, to buy Portal:Mathematics, how much for Portal:Mathematics, Portal:Mathematics price, Portal:Mathematics cost, Portal:Mathematics price list, Portal:Mathematics tariffs, Portal:Mathematics rates, Portal:Mathematics prices, Portal:Mathematics delivery, Portal:Mathematics store, Portal:Mathematics online store, Portal:Mathematics online shop, inexpensive Portal:Mathematics, cheap Portal:Mathematics, Portal:Mathematics for free, free Portal:Mathematics, used Portal:Mathematics, and so on.

Information source: wikipedia.org

Do you want to know more? Look at the full version of the Portal:Mathematics article.