|girls, dawn, love, health, breast cancer awareness, calmness, fairies, Valentine's Day, spring, Easter, beauty, cuteness, glamour
| Color coordinates
|sRGB (r, g, b)
||(255, 192, 203)
|CMYK (c, m, y, k)
||(0, 31, 7, 0)
|HSV (h, s, v)
||(350°, 25%, 100%)
|B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)
Pink is any of the colors between bluish red (purple) and red, of medium to high brightness and of low to moderate saturation. Commonly used for Valentine's Day and Easter, pink is sometimes referred to as "the color of love." The use of the word for the color "pink" was first recorded in the late 17th century.
Although pink is roughly considered just as a tint of red, most variations of pink lie between red, white and magenta colors. This means that the pink's hue is somewhat between red and magenta.
Roseus is a Latin word meaning "rosy" or "pink." Lucretius used the word to describe the dawn in his epic poem On the Nature of Things (De rerum natura). The word is also used in the binomial names of several species, such as the Rosy Starling (Sturnus roseus) and Catharanthus roseus. In most Indo-European languages, the color pink is called rosa.
Pink in watercolor pencil
The color pink is named after the flowers called pinks, flowering plants in the genus Dianthus. The name derives from the frilled edge of the flowers-the verb "to pink" dates from the 14th century and means "to decorate with a perforated or punched pattern" (possibly from German "pinken" = to peck). As noted and referenced above, the word "pink" was first used as a noun to refer to the color known today as pink in the 17th century. The verb sense of the word "pink" continues to be used today in the name of the hand tool known as pinking shears.
Main article: Pinke (color)
In the 17th century, the word pink or pinke was also used to describe a yellowish pigment, which was mixed with blue colors to yield greenish colors. Thomas Jenner's A Book of Drawing, Limning, Washing (1652) categorizes "Pink & blew bice" amongst the greens (p. 38), and specifies several admixtures of greenish colors made with pink-e.g. "Grasse-green is made of Pink and Bice, it is shadowed with Indigo and Pink ... French-green of Pink and Indico [shadowed with] Indico" (pp. 38–40). In William Salmon's Polygraphice (1673), "Pink yellow" is mentioned amongst the chief yellow pigments (p. 96), and the reader is instructed to mix it with either Saffron or Ceruse for "sad" or "light" shades thereof, respectively.
In gender 
model wearing a pink fashion outfit
The association of pink with girls dates to the modern era, probably developing at different times in different countries. In 1856, it was reported that Napoleon III and Empress Eugénie of France prepared outfits with blue trimmings for the anticipated birth of a son, but their reasons were religious in that the son was to be dedicated to the Virgin Mary, whose traditional color was blue. An 1868 American source, Louisa May Alcott's Little Women refers to French fashion's assignment of colors−"Amy put a blue ribbon on the boy and a pink on the girl, French fashion, so you can always tell [them apart]."−but it is unclear whether the French fashion was to use colors to distinguish between children or between boys and girls. Before the 20th century, European countries varied, with some assigning colors based on the baby's complexion, and others assigning pink sometimes to boys and sometimes to girls.
In the United States, there was no established rule in the 19th century. A 1927 survey of ten department stores reported that pink was preferred for boys in six of them and for girls in four. The foremost student of the role of color in children's fashion, Jo Paoletti, found that "By the 1950s, pink was strongly associated with femininity" but to an extent that was "neither rigid nor universal" as it later became.
Some date the origin of the association of pink with girls in the United States to the 1910s or 1920s. Many have noted the contrary association of pink with boys in 20th-century America. An article in the trade publication Earnshaw's Infants' Department in June 1918 said:
The generally accepted rule is pink for the boys, and blue for the girls. The reason is that pink, being a more decided and stronger color, is more suitable for the boy, while blue, which is more delicate and dainty, is prettier for the girl.
- The pink ribbon is the international symbol of breast cancer awareness. Pink was chosen partially because it is so strongly associated with femininity.
- One study by two neuroscientists in Current Biology examined color preferences across cultures and found significant differences between male and female responses. Both groups favored blues over other hues, but women had more favorable responses to the reddish-purple range of the spectrum and men had more favorable responses to the greenish-yellow end of the spectrum. Despite the fact that the study used adults, and both groups preferred blues, and responses to the color pink were never even tested, the popular press represented the research as an indication of an innate preference by girls for pink. The misreading has been often repeated in market research, reinforcing American culture's association of pink with girls on the basis of imagined innate characteristics.
In sexuality 
- Whereas Jewish people were forced to wear a yellow star of David under Nazi rule, men imprisoned on accusations of homosexuality were forced to wear a pink triangle. Nowadays, a pink triangle (usually pointing up, and rendered in hot pink contrary to Nazi usage in which the triangle was pointing down and rendered in regular pink) is often worn with pride.
- A Dutch newsgroup about homosexuality is called nl.roze (roze being the Dutch word for pink), while in Britain, Pink News is a leading gay newspaper and online news service. There is a magazine called Pink for the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) community which has different editions for various metropolitan areas. In France Pink TV is an LGBT cable channel.
- In business, the pink pound or pink dollar refers to the spending power of the LGBT community. Advertising agencies sometimes call the gay market the pink economy.
- Though long discontinued, the now mainstream gay-oriented magazine The Advocate for many years of its early history featured a sometimes sizable section of personal ads and mostly sexually oriented ads printed on pink paper and referred to as "the pink pages." As the gay rights movement gained increased mainstream momentum and public acceptance, and as the magazine itself became less underground and was distributed more widely on newsstands in "middle America," the publishers made the section more easily removable for those who preferred not to view/keep it with the main body of the magazine. The Advocate eventually ceased to include the "pink pages" when in 1992, they spun off a separate magazine called Advocate Classifieds which continued until about 2000 when the classified ads went on the Internet.
- In English slang, the pink refers to the vagina.
- In Russian, pink (розовый, rozovyj) is used to refer to lesbians, and light blue (голубой, goluboj) refers to gay men.
In nature 
A magenta plant
- Cherry blossoms only have a pink color when they bloom in the springtime. Because of this, pink is the color most commonly associated with springtime in Japan.
- Most flamingo species are pink in color due to pink pigments from algae in their diet.
The Natural World 
In art 
Detail of pink poster
- In 1973, Sheila Levrant de Bretteville created "Pink," a broadside meant to explore the notions of gender as associated with the color pink, for an American Institute of Graphic Arts exhibition about color. This was the only entry about the color pink. Various women including many in the Feminist Studio Workshop at the Woman's Building submitted entries exploring their association with the color. De Bretteville arranged the squares of paper to form a "quilt" from which posters were printed and disseminated throughout Los Angeles. She was often called "Pinky" as a result.
- In 1993, artist Gioia Fonda created a conceptual piece in the form of a week long holiday called pink week. The intention of pink week is to liberate the color pink from all dogma and simply celebrate the color pink as a color.
- Bubblegum Pink is an installation by the artist duo Bigert & Bergstrom which "confronted [the viewer] with three different mental climates" involving large amounts of pink. This mirrors the use of the color in American prisons to calm aggressive prisoners. It features a pink cell and a carpet worn by repetitive pacing.
- Christo and Jeanne-Claude's Surrounded Islands wrapped wooded islands in Miami's Biscayne Bay with 6,500,000 square feet (600,000 m) of bright pink fabric. Thomas von Taschitzki has said that "the monochrome pink wrappings"..."form a counterpoint to the small green wooded islands."
- Many of Franz West's aluminium sculptures were often painted a bright pink, for example Sexualitatssymbol (Symbol of Sexuality). West has said that the pink was intended as an "outcry to nature".
In culture 
Academic dress 
- In the French academic dress system, the five traditional fields of study (Arts, Science, Medicine, Law and Divinity) are each symbolized by a distinctive color, which appears in the academic dress of the people who graduated in this field. Redcurrant, an extremely red shade of pink, is the distinctive color for Medicine (and other health-related fields) fr:Groseille (couleur).
- In Ireland, Support group for Irish Pink Adoptions defines a pink family as a relatively neutral umbrella term for the single gay men, single lesbians, or same-gender couples who intend to adopt, are in the process of adopting, or have adopted. It also covers adults born/raised in such families. The group welcome the input of other people touched by adoption, especially people who were adopted as children and are now adults.
Alcoholic beverages 
- In Thailand, pink is associated with Tuesday on the Thai solar calendar. Anyone may wear pink on Tuesdays, and anyone born on a Tuesday may adopt pink as their color.
- Mary Kay in 1968, Mary Kay Ash, purchased the first Pink Cadillac, which eventually became the trademark of her company.
Film and television 
- Since 1893 the London Financial Times newspaper has used a distinctive salmon pink color for its newsprint, mainly as a way to distinguish itself from competitors. In other countries, the salmon press identifies economic newspapers or economics sections in "white" newspapers.
- In Japanese language, pink has been described as Momoiro (ももいろ Momo-Iro ), which means "peach color", but Pink (ピンク Pinku ) is more popular recently.
- The color pink is often used to represent women or young girls. (See discussion above in section on Pink in gender and sexuality.).
Gun rights 
- Pink Friday: Roman Reloaded – The Re-Up is the first box set by Trinidadian-American recording artist Nicki Minaj.
- Pink Friday: Roman Reloaded is the sophomore album by American recording artist Nicki Minaj.
- Pink Friday (fragrance) is a fragrance created by Trinidadian-born rapper Nicki Minaj with Give Back Brands.
- Pink Friday is the debut studio album by American recording artist Nicki Minaj.
- Pink Houses is a song by singer-songwriter John Mellencamp.
- Pink is an American singer-songwriter whose real name is Alecia Moore.
- "Pink" is a song by Aerosmith.
- Under The Pink is an album by Tori Amos.
- In the Land of Grey and Pink is an album by Caravan.
- Pink Moon is an album by the English singer/songwriter Nick Drake.
- The Legendary Pink Dots are a cult-classic Anglo-Dutch experimental rock band.
- Pink Fairies is a British hard rock band; one of the founding members, Twink released a solo album called Think Pink.
- "Think Pink!" is a song from Funny Face.
- Pink Cadillac (song) is a 1984 humorous rockabilly song by Bruce Springsteen
- Elvis Presley owned what is the most famous Pink Cadillac in the world
- Japanese stoner/drone band Boris have a 2005 album called Pink.
- Pink Lady was a Japanese female pop music duo of the late 1970s and early 1980s, featuring Mitsuyo Nemoto ("Mie") and Keiko Masuda ("Kei").
- Pinky was a Japanese punk rock performer in the early 1990s.
- The Pink Spiders, an American power pop band.
- The Flaming Lips, an alternative/psychedelic band, produced the album Yoshimi Battles The Pink Robots.
- "Pretty in Pink" is a song by The Psychedelic Furs
- Pink Martini is an orchestral band from Portland, Oregon.
- Pink Floyd were an English rock band. In "Have a Cigar", a satiric song about the music industry, a company A&R man, after emptily praising a band he's signing, says "Which one's Pink?"
- Momoiro Sparkling (Pink Sparkling), is a song by Japanese girl group Cute.
- Jazz In Pink is an all-female smooth jazz band.
- The official fan club color of popular ongoing South Korean K-pop girl group Girls' Generation is said to be "rose pink".
- A Pink is also the name of another reasonably successful South Korean girl group.
- Momoiro Clover Z ("Pink Clover Z"), a Japanese girl group
Performance art 
- Pink, being a 'watered-down' red, is sometimes used in a derogatory way to describe a person with mild communist or socialist beliefs (see Pinko).
- In maps of political parties in Portugal, pink is used to represent the Socialist Party.
- In the Yogic Hindu, Shaktic Hindu and Tantric Buddhist traditions rose is one of the colors of the fourth primary energy center, the heart chakra Anahata. The other color is green.
- In Catholicism, pink (called rose by the Catholic Church) symbolizes joy and happiness. It is used for the Third Sunday of Advent and the Fourth Sunday of Lent (see Laetare Sunday) to mark the halfway point in these seasons of penance. For this reason, one of the candles in an Advent wreath may be pink, rather than purple. However, in some Protestant denominations, the pink candle is sometimes lit on the Fourth Sunday of Advent, sometimes known as the Sunday of Love.
- Pink is the color most associated with Indian spiritual leader Meher Baba, who often wore pink coats to please his closest female follower, Mehera Irani, and today pink remains an important color, symbolizing love, to Baba's followers.
- The Invisible Pink Unicorn is the goddess of a parody religion, a rhetorical tool intended to satirize the contradictory properties often attributed to deities.
- Pink noise ( sample (help·info)), also known as 1/f noise, in audio engineering is a signal or process with a frequency spectrum such that the power spectral density is proportional to the reciprocal of the frequency.
- Toys aimed at girls often display pink prominently on packaging and the toy themselves.
- In its 1957 catalog, Lionel Trains offered for sale a pink model freight train for girls. The steam locomotive and coal car were pink and the freight cars of the freight train were various pastel colors. The caboose was baby blue. It was a marketing failure because any girl who was enough a tomboy to want a model train would want a real train and not a pink train, and boys in the 1950s did not want to be seen playing with a pink train. However, today it is a valuable collector's item.
Transportation planning 
See also 
- "W3C TR CSS3 Color Module, HTML4 color keywords". W3.org. Retrieved 2010-09-11.
- "Merriam Webster definition of the color "pink"". merriam-webster.com. Retrieved 2011-11-12.
- "pink, n.⁵ and adj.²", Oxford English Dictionary Online
- "Pink, a Tint of Red". Landscape-guide.com. Retrieved 2010-09-11.
- "For example, pink is a tint of red". Enchantedlearning.com. Retrieved 2010-09-11.
- Colors by Hue at MSDN
- "Creating Styles in Fireworks". Adobe.com. 2009-07-14. Archived from the original on July 26, 2008. Retrieved 2010-09-11.
- Dana Lee Ling. "x11 Colors in Hue Saturation Luminosity order". Comfsm.fm. Retrieved 2010-09-11.
- "Color Names". ImageMagick. 2010-01-02. Retrieved 2010-09-11.
- "CTCWeb Glossary: R (ratis to ruta)". Ablemedia.com. Retrieved 2010-09-11.
- Collins Dictionary
- Jenner, Thomas (1652). A Book of Drawing, Limning, Washing. London: M. Simmons. p. 38.
- Jo B. Paoletti, Pink and Blue: Telling the Girls From the Boys in America (Indiana University Press, 2012), 87
- Louisa May Alcott, Little Women. Chapter 28 Project Gutenberg Link to etext
- "Is pink for girls or boys?". BBC Radio. 19 December 2009. Retrieved 1 October 2012.
- Paoletti, 91
- Paoletti, 92
- Ben Goldacre (2007-08-25). "Bad Science". Out of the Blue and into the Pink (London).
- Zucker, Kenneth J. and Bradley, Susan J. (1995). Gender Identity Disorder and Psychosexual Problems in Children and Adolescents. Guilford Press. p. 203. ISBN - get this book.
- Smithsonian.com: Jeanne Maglaty, "When Did Girls Start Wearing Pink?," April 8, 2011, accessed June 4, 2011
- Merkin, Daphne. "Gender Trouble", The New York Times Style Magazine, March 12, 2006. Retrieved 10 December 2007.
- Orenstein, Peggy. "What's Wrong With Cinderella?", The New York Times Magazine, December 24, 2006, retrieved December 10, 2007. Orenstein writes: "When colors were first introduced to the nursery in the early part of the 20th century, pink was considered the more masculine hue, a pastel version of red. Blue, with its intimations of the Virgin Mary, constancy and faithfulness, was thought to be dainty. Why or when that switched is not clear, but as late as the 1930s a significant percentage of adults in one national survey held to that split."
- Jude Stewart (2008). "Pink is for Boys: cultural history of the color pink". Step Inside Design Magazine. Archived from the original on 2008-02-28.
- Pink Ribbon for Breast Cancer Awareness:
- Paoletti, 97-8
- The Pink Triangle: The Nazi War Against Homosexuals (1986) by Richard Plant (New Republic Books). - get this book.
- "Website of Pink magazine:". Pinkmag.com. Retrieved 2010-09-11.
- "Opportunities in the Pink Economy of the United Kingdom" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-09-11.
- "What does pink mean? pink Definition". Retrieved 2012-10-29.
- "Gay in Russia". Gaylife. Retrieved September 5, 2012.
- "WACK! Exhibition, podcast interview with de Bretteville". MOCA.org. 1940-11-04. Retrieved 2010-09-27.
- "Pink Week-when Pink means Pink:". Pinkweek.org. Retrieved 2010-09-11.
- Nemitz, Barbara. Pink The Exposed Color in Contemporary Art and Culture. Hatje Cantz. p. 88.
- Nemitz, Barbara. Pink The Exposed Color in Contemporary Art and Culture. Hatje Cantz. p. 88.
- Goodman, Walter (1987-10-16). "Film: Christo, in 'Islands'". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-10-05.
- Nemitz, Barbara. Pink The Exposed Color in Contemporary Art and Culture. Hatje Cantz. p. 68.
- Nemitz, Barbara. Pink The Exposed Color in Contemporary Art and Culture. Hatje Cantz. p. 69.
- "Medline Encyclopedia: Delirium Tremens". Nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2010-09-11.
- "Pink Lady Drink Recipe - How to make a Pink Lady cocktail". Supercocktails.com. Retrieved 2010-08-16.
- "Pink Squirrel recipe". Drinksmixer.com. Retrieved 2010-08-16.
- "Recipe for Pink gin". Drinknation.com. Retrieved 2010-09-11.
- "Why is the British Empire colored pink on maps?:". Nmm.ac.uk. 1937-11-24. Retrieved 2012-12-07.
- "Victoria's Secret Pink:". Vspink.com. Retrieved 2010-09-11.
- "Principal Finds Test Scores Hair-Razing:". Sfgate.com. 2007-09-07. Retrieved 2010-09-11.
- "Pink thrills: Japanese sex movies go global | The Japan Times Online". Search.japantimes.co.jp. 2008-12-04. Retrieved 2010-08-16.
- "Pink Pistols website:". Pinkpistols.org. 2001-03-08. Retrieved 2010-09-11.
- As he moves out of the darkness, a pink ribbon blows down next to him and he sees that Faith is part of the "communion" that is taking place in the woods.
- "Image of typical Panzer Division standard". Retrieved 2012-12-07.
- Flags of the Third Reich-see under Herman Goering Panzer Division Flag:
- Davis, Brian L. Flags of the Third Reich Oxford, U.K.:2000 Osprey Publishing Page 31 Panzer Division Standard is shown as being colored pink
- "Official site of singer Pink:". Pinkspage.com. Retrieved 2010-09-11.
- Supergirl (Volume 2) #79
- Ashley Harrell (2009-01-28). "Gritty in Pink by Ashley Harrell SF Weekly Wednesday, 28 January 2009:". Sfweekly.com. Retrieved 2010-09-11.
- Code Pink: Women for Peace on the site of Global Exchange. Retrieved 31 January 2007.
- "City of Lund, Sweden stages fake Gay Nazi parade with pink banners on 17 August 2005:". Scaryideas.com. Retrieved 2010-09-11.
- "Controversy regarding pink University of Iowa locker room:". Sports.espn.go.com. 2005-09-28. Retrieved 2010-09-11.
- "Lionel's 1957 pink train for girls:". Lionel-train-set.com. Retrieved 2012-12-07.
External links 
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