Crankshaft â–ª Sale
Crankshaft
Crankshaft (red), pistons (gray) in their cylinders (blue), and flywheel (black)

The crankshaft, sometimes abbreviated to crank, is responsible for conversion between reciprocating motion and rotational motion. In a reciprocating engine, it translates reciprocating linear piston motion into rotational motion, whereas in a reciprocating compressor, it converts the rotational motion into reciprocating motion. In order to do the conversion between two motions, the crankshaft has "crank throws" or "crankpins", additional bearing surfaces whose axis is offset from that of the crank, to which the "big ends" of the connecting rods from each cylinder attach.

It is typically connected to a flywheel to reduce the pulsation characteristic of the four-stroke cycle, and sometimes a torsional or vibrational damper at the opposite end, to reduce the torsional vibrations often caused along the length of the crankshaft by the cylinders farthest from the output end acting on the torsional elasticity of the metal.

History

Western World

Classical Antiquity

Crankshaft
Roman crankshaft dated to the 2nd century AD. The right handle is lost.

A Roman iron crankshaft of yet unknown purpose dating to the 2nd century AD was excavated in Augusta Raurica, Switzerland. The 82.5 cm long piece has fitted to one end a 15 cm long bronze handle, the other handle being lost.

Crankshaft
Roman Hierapolis sawmill from the 3rd century AD, the earliest known machine to combine a crank with a connecting rod.

The earliest evidence, anywhere in the world, for a crank and connecting rod in a machine appears in the late Roman Hierapolis sawmill from the 3rd century AD and two Roman stone sawmills at Gerasa, Roman Syria, and Ephesus, Asia Minor (both 6th century AD). On the pediment of the Hierapolis mill, a waterwheel fed by a mill race is shown transmitting power through a gear train to two frame saws, which cut rectangular blocks by way of some kind of connecting rods and, through mechanical necessity, cranks. The accompanying inscription is in Greek.

The crank and connecting rod mechanisms of the other two archaeologically attested sawmills worked without a gear train. In ancient literature, we find a reference to the workings of water-powered marble saws close to Trier, now Germany, by the late 4th century poet Ausonius; about the same time, these mill types seem also to be indicated by the Christian saint Gregory of Nyssa from Anatolia, demonstrating a diversified use of water-power in many parts of the Roman Empire. The three finds push back the date of the invention of the crank and connecting rod back by a full millennium; for the first time, all essential components of the much later steam engine were assembled by one technological culture:

With the crank and connecting rod system, all elements for constructing a steam engine (invented in 1712) — Hero's aeolipile (generating steam power), the cylinder and piston (in metal force pumps), non-return valves (in water pumps), gearing (in water mills and clocks) — were known in Roman times.

Middle Ages

Crankshaft
Vigevano's war carriage

The Italian physician Guido da Vigevano (c. 1280−1349), planning for a new crusade, made illustrations for a paddle boat and war carriages that were propelled by manually turned compound cranks and gear wheels (center of image). The Luttrell Psalter, dating to around 1340, describes a grindstone rotated by two cranks, one at each end of its axle; the geared hand-mill, operated either with one or two cranks, appeared later in the 15th century;

Renaissance

Crankshaft
15th century paddle-wheel boat whose paddles are turned by single-throw crankshafts (Anonymous of the Hussite Wars)

The first depictions of the compound crank in the carpenter's brace appear between 1420 and 1430 in various northern European artwork. The rapid adoption of the compound crank can be traced in the works of the Anonymous of the Hussite Wars, an unknown German engineer writing on the state of the military technology of his day: first, the connecting-rod, applied to cranks, reappeared, second, double compound cranks also began to be equipped with connecting-rods and third, the flywheel was employed for these cranks to get them over the 'dead-spot'.

In Renaissance Italy, the earliest evidence of a compound crank and connecting-rod is found in the sketch books of Taccola, but the device is still mechanically misunderstood. A sound grasp of the crank motion involved is demonstrated a little later by Pisanello, who painted a piston-pump driven by a water-wheel and operated by two simple cranks and two connecting-rods.

Crankshaft
Water-raising pump powered by crank and connecting rod mechanism (Georg Andreas Böckler, 1661)

One of the drawings of the Anonymous of the Hussite Wars shows a boat with a pair of paddle-wheels at each end turned by men operating compound cranks (see above). The concept was much improved by the Italian Roberto Valturio in 1463, who devised a boat with five sets, where the parallel cranks are all joined to a single power source by one connecting-rod, an idea also taken up by his compatriot Francesco di Giorgio.

Crankshafts were also described by Konrad Kyeser (d. 1405), Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) and a Dutch "farmer" by the name Cornelis Corneliszoon van Uitgeest in 1592. His wind-powered sawmill used a crankshaft to convert a windmill's circular motion into a back-and-forward motion powering the saw. Corneliszoon was granted a patent for his crankshaft in 1597.

From the 16th century onwards, evidence of cranks and connecting rods integrated into machine design becomes abundant in the technological treatises of the period: Agostino Ramelli's The Diverse and Artifactitious Machines of 1588 alone depicts eighteen examples, a number that rises in the Theatrum Machinarum Novum by Georg Andreas Böckler to 45 different machines, one third of the total.

Middle and Far East

Al-Jazari (1136–1206) described a crank and connecting rod system in a rotating machine in two of his water-raising machines. His twin-cylinder pump incorporated a crankshaft, but the device was unnecessarily complex indicating that he still did not fully understand the concept of power conversion. In China, the potential of the crank of converting circular motion into reciprocal one never seems to have been fully realized, and the crank was typically absent from such machines until the turn of the 20th century.

Design

Crankshaft
Components of a typical, four stroke cycle, DOHC piston engine. (E) exhaust camshaft, (I) intake camshaft, (S) spark plug, (V) valves, (P) piston, (R) connecting rod, (C) crankshaft, (W) water jacket for coolant flow.
Crankshaft
MAN marine crankshaft for 6cyl marine diesel applications. Note locomotive on left for size reference

Large engines are usually multicylinder to reduce pulsations from individual firing strokes, with more than one piston attached to a complex crankshaft. Many small engines, such as those found in mopeds or garden machinery, are single cylinder and use only a single piston, simplifying crankshaft design. This engine can also be built with no riveted seam.

Bearings

The crankshaft has a linear axis about which it rotates, typically with several bearing journals riding on replaceable bearings (the main bearings) held in the engine block. As the crankshaft undergoes a great deal of sideways load from each cylinder in a multicylinder engine, it must be supported by several such bearings, not just one at each end. This was a factor in the rise of V8 engines, with their shorter crankshafts, in preference to straight-8 engines. The long crankshafts of the latter suffered from an unacceptable amount of flex when engine designers began using higher compression ratios and higher rotational speeds. High performance engines often have more main bearings than their lower performance cousins for this reason.

Piston stroke

The distance the axis of the crank throws from the axis of the crankshaft determines the piston stroke measurement, and thus engine displacement. A common way to increase the low-speed torque of an engine is to increase the stroke, sometimes known as "shaft-stroking." This also increases the reciprocating vibration, however, limiting the high speed capability of the engine. In compensation, it improves the low speed operation of the engine, as the longer intake stroke through smaller valve(s) results in greater turbulence and mixing of the intake charge. Most modern high speed production engines are classified as "over square" or short-stroke, wherein the stroke is less than the diameter of the cylinder bore. As such, finding the proper balance between shaft-stroking speed and length leads to better results.

Engine configuration

The configuration and number of pistons in relation to each other and the crank leads to straight, V or flat engines. The same basic engine block can be used with different crankshafts, however, to alter the firing order; for instance, the 90° V6 engine configuration, in older days sometimes derived by using six cylinders of a V8 engine with what is basically a shortened version of the V8 crankshaft, produces an engine with an inherent pulsation in the power flow due to the "missing" two cylinders. The same engine, however, can be made to provide evenly spaced power pulses by using a crankshaft with an individual crank throw for each cylinder, spaced so that the pistons are actually phased 120° apart, as in the GM 3800 engine. While production V8 engines use four crank throws spaced 90° apart, high-performance V8 engines often use a "flat" crankshaft with throws spaced 180° apart. The difference can be heard as the flat-plane crankshafts result in the engine having a smoother, higher-pitched sound than cross-plane (for example, IRL IndyCar Series compared to NASCAR Sprint Cup Series, or a Ferrari 355 compared to a Chevrolet Corvette). See the main article on crossplane crankshafts.

Engine balance

For some engines it is necessary to provide counterweights for the reciprocating mass of each piston and connecting rod to improve engine balance. These are typically cast as part of the crankshaft but, occasionally, are bolt-on pieces. While counter weights add a considerable amount of weight to the crankshaft, it provides a smoother running engine and allows higher RPM levels to be reached.

Rotary engines

Many early aircraft engines (and a few in other applications) had the crankshaft fixed to the airframe and instead the cylinders rotated, known as a rotary engine design. Rotary engines such as the Wankel engine are referred to as pistonless rotary engines.

In the Wankel engine the rotors drive the eccentric shaft, which could be considered the equivalent of the crankshaft in a piston engine.

Radial engines

The radial engine is a reciprocating type internal combustion engine configuration in which the cylinders point outward from a central crankshaft like the spokes of a wheel. It resembles a stylized star when viewed from the front, and is called a "star engine" (German Sternmotor, French Moteur en étoile) in some languages. The radial configuration was very commonly used in aircraft engines before turbine engines became predominant.

Construction

Crankshaft
Continental engine marine crankshafts, 1942

Crankshafts can be monolithic (made in a single piece) or assembled from several pieces. Monolithic crankshafts are most common, but some smaller and larger engines use assembled crankshafts.

Forging and casting

Crankshafts can be forged from a steel bar usually through roll forging or cast in ductile steel. Today more and more manufacturers tend to favor the use of forged crankshafts due to their lighter weight, more compact dimensions and better inherent dampening. With forged crankshafts, vanadium microalloyed steels are mostly used as these steels can be air cooled after reaching high strengths without additional heat treatment, with exception to the surface hardening of the bearing surfaces. The low alloy content also makes the material cheaper than high alloy steels. Carbon steels are also used, but these require additional heat treatment to reach the desired properties. Iron crankshafts are today mostly found in cheaper production engines (such as those found in the Ford Focus diesel engines) where the loads are lower. Some engines also use cast iron crankshafts for low output versions while the more expensive high output version use forged steel.

Machining

Crankshafts can also be machined out of a billet, often a bar of high quality vacuum remelted steel. Though the fiber flow (local inhomogeneities of the material's chemical composition generated during casting) doesn’t follow the shape of the crankshaft (which is undesirable), this is usually not a problem since higher quality steels, which normally are difficult to forge, can be used. These crankshafts tend to be very expensive due to the large amount of material that must be removed with lathes and milling machines, the high material cost, and the additional heat treatment required. However, since no expensive tooling is needed, this production method allows small production runs without high costs.

In an effort to reduce costs, used crankshafts may also be machined. A good core may often be easily reconditioned by a crankshaft grinding process. Severely damaged crankshafts may also be repaired with a welding operation, prior to grinding, that utilizes a submerged arc welding machine. To accommodate the smaller journal diameters a ground crankshaft has, and possibly an over-sized thrust dimension, undersize engine bearings are used to allow for precise clearances during operation.

Fatigue strength

The fatigue strength of crankshafts is usually increased by using a radius at the ends of each main and crankpin bearing. The radius itself reduces the stress in these critical areas, but since the radius in most cases is rolled, this also leaves some compressive residual stress in the surface, which prevents cracks from forming.

Hardening

Most production crankshafts use induction hardened bearing surfaces, since that method gives good results with low costs. It also allows the crankshaft to be reground without re-hardening. But high performance crankshafts, billet crankshafts in particular, tend to use nitridization instead. Nitridization is slower and thereby more costly, and in addition it puts certain demands on the alloying metals in the steel to be able to create stable nitrides. The advantage of nitridization is that it can be done at low temperatures, it produces a very hard surface, and the process leaves some compressive residual stress in the surface, which is good for fatigue properties. The low temperature during treatment is advantageous in that it doesn’t have any negative effects on the steel, such as annealing. With crankshafts that operate on roller bearings, the use of carburization tends to be favored due to the high Hertzian contact stresses in such an application. Like nitriding, carburization also leaves some compressive residual stresses in the surface.

Counterweights

Some expensive, high performance crankshafts also use heavy-metal counterweights to make the crankshaft more compact. The heavy-metal used is most often a tungsten alloy but depleted uranium has also been used. A cheaper option is to use lead, but compared with tungsten its density is much lower.

Stress on crankshafts

The shaft is subjected to various forces but generally needs to be analysed in two positions. Firstly, failure may occur at the position of maximum bending; this may be at the centre of the crank or at either end. In such a condition the failure is due to bending and the pressure in the cylinder is maximal. Second, the crank may fail due to twisting, so the conrod needs to be checked for shear at the position of maximal twisting. The pressure at this position is the maximal pressure, but only a fraction of maximal pressure.

See also

References

  1. , pp. 113f.
  2. , pp. 51–52, 56, fig. 42
  3. , p. 161:

    Because of the findings at Ephesus and Gerasa the invention of the crank and connecting rod system has had to be redated from the 13th to the 6th c; now the Hierapolis relief takes it back another three centuries, which confirms that water-powered stone saw mills were in use when Ausonius wrote his Mosella.

  4. , pp. 139–141
  5. , pp. 149–153
  6. , p. 16
  7. , p. 156, fn. 74
  8. , p. 80
  9. , p. 111
  10. , p. 112
  11. , p. 113
  12. See this illustration (top)
  13. , p. 114
  14. Ahmad Y Hassan. The Crank-Connecting Rod System in a Continuously Rotating Machine.
  15. , p. 172
  16. Sally Ganchy, Sarah Gancher (2009), Islam and Science, Medicine, and Technology, The Rosen Publishing Group, p. 41, ISBN  - get this book 
  17. , p. 170:

    However, that al-Jazari did not entirely grasp the meaning of the crank for joining reciprocating with rotary motion is shown by his extraordinarily complex pump powered through a cog-wheel mounted eccentrically on its axle.

  18. , p. 104:

    Yet a student of the Chinese technology of the early twentieth century remarks that even a generation ago the Chinese had not 'reached that stage where continuous rotary motion is substituted for reciprocating motion in technical contrivances such as the drill, lathe, saw, etc. To take this step familiarity with the crank is necessary. The crank in its simple rudimentary form we find in the [modern] Chinese windlass, which use of the device, however, has apparently not given the impulse to change reciprocating into circular motion in other contrivances'. In China the crank was known, but remained dormant for at least nineteen centuries, its explosive potential for applied mechanics being unrecognized and unexploited.

  19. "Crankshaft Grinding". Crankshaft Repair. 

Sources

External links

Source of information: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - Disclaimer.

Popular search requests

Crankshaft is an object of interest for many people. For example, the people often search for Crankshaft website, Crankshaft blog, Crankshaft online, Crankshaft information, Crankshaft photo, Crankshaft picture, Crankshaft video, Crankshaft movie, Crankshaft history, Crankshaft news, Crankshaft facts, Crankshaft description, Crankshaft detailed info, Crankshaft features, Crankshaft manual, Crankshaft instructions, Crankshaft comparison, Crankshaft book, Crankshaft story, Crankshaft article, Crankshaft review, Crankshaft feedbacks, Crankshaft selection, Crankshaft data, Crankshaft address, Crankshaft phone number, download Crankshaft, Crankshaft reference, Crankshaft wikipedia, Crankshaft facebook, Crankshaft twitter, Crankshaft 2013, Crankshaft 2014, Crankshaft 2015, Crankshaft in spring, Crankshaft in summer, Crankshaft in autumn, Crankshaft in winter, Crankshaft in January, Crankshaft in February, Crankshaft in March, Crankshaft in April, Crankshaft in May, Crankshaft in June, Crankshaft in July, Crankshaft in August, Crankshaft in September, Crankshaft in October, Crankshaft in November, Crankshaft in December, Crankshaft on Monday, Crankshaft on Thuesday, Crankshaft on Wednesday, Crankshaft on Thursday, Crankshaft on Friday, Crankshaft on Saturday, Crankshaft Sunday, Crankshaft holidays, Crankshaft on New Year's Eve, Crankshaft on New Year's Day, Crankshaft on Christmas, Crankshaft on Easter, Crankshaft on Memorial Day, Crankshaft on Labor Day, Crankshaft on Independence Day, Crankshaft on Veterans Day, Crankshaft on Thanksgiving Day, Crankshaft on St. Valentine's Day, Crankshaft on Halloween, Crankshaft on Good Friday, Crankshaft on Black Friday, Crankshaft on Groundhog Day, Crankshaft on Mardi Gras, Crankshaft on Mother's Day, Crankshaft on Father's, Crankshaft on St. Patrick's Day, Crankshaft on April Fools' Day, Crankshaft on Hanukkah, Crankshaft on weekend, Crankshaft working time, Crankshaft today, Crankshaft at morning, Crankshaft at evening, Crankshaft at night, Crankshaft tonight, Crankshaft in the past, Crankshaft in the future, Crankshaft in the United States, Crankshaft USA, Crankshaft US, Crankshaft in United Kingdom, Crankshaft UK, Crankshaft in Canada, Crankshaft in Australia, etc.

Crankshaft is also an object of commercial interest. For example, many people are interested in Crankshaft offers, Crankshaft buy, Crankshaft sell, Crankshaft sale, Crankshaft discounts, discounted Crankshaft, Crankshaft coupon, Crankshaft promo code, Crankshaft order, to order Crankshaft online, to buy Crankshaft, how much for Crankshaft, Crankshaft price, Crankshaft cost, Crankshaft price list, Crankshaft tariffs, Crankshaft rates, Crankshaft prices, Crankshaft delivery, Crankshaft store, Crankshaft online store, Crankshaft online shop, inexpensive Crankshaft, cheap Crankshaft, Crankshaft for free, free Crankshaft, used Crankshaft, and so on.

Besides, a date and time do matter, for example: Crankshaft 2013, Crankshaft 2014, Crankshaft 2015, Crankshaft in spring, Crankshaft in summer, Crankshaft in autumn, Crankshaft in winter, Crankshaft in January, Crankshaft in February, Crankshaft in March, Crankshaft in April, Crankshaft in May, Crankshaft in June, Crankshaft in July, Crankshaft in August, Crankshaft in September, Crankshaft in October, Crankshaft in November, Crankshaft in December, Crankshaft on Monday, Crankshaft on Thuesday, Crankshaft on Wednesday, Crankshaft on Thursday, Crankshaft on Friday, Crankshaft on Saturday, Crankshaft Sunday, Crankshaft holidays, Crankshaft on New Year's Eve, Crankshaft on New Year's Day, Crankshaft on Christmas, Crankshaft on Easter, Crankshaft on Memorial Day, Crankshaft on Labor Day, Crankshaft on Independence Day, Crankshaft on Veterans Day, Crankshaft on Thanksgiving Day, Crankshaft on St. Valentine's Day, Crankshaft on Halloween, Crankshaft on Good Friday, Crankshaft on Black Friday, Crankshaft on Groundhog Day, Crankshaft on Mardi Gras, Crankshaft on Mother's Day, Crankshaft on Father's, Crankshaft on St. Patrick's Day, Crankshaft on April Fools' Day, Crankshaft on Hanukkah, Crankshaft on weekend, Crankshaft working time, Crankshaft today, Crankshaft at morning, Crankshaft at evening, Crankshaft at night, Crankshaft tonight, Crankshaft in the past, Crankshaft in the future, etc.

Crankshaft worldwide

Crankshaft is an object of interest of the people from all countries of the world: Crankshaft Afghanistan, Crankshaft Albania, Crankshaft Algeria, Crankshaft Andorra, Crankshaft Angola, Crankshaft Antigua & Deps, Crankshaft Argentina, Crankshaft Armenia, Crankshaft Australia, Crankshaft Austria, Crankshaft Azerbaijan, Crankshaft Bahamas, Crankshaft Bahrain, Crankshaft Bangladesh, Crankshaft Barbados, Crankshaft Belarus, Crankshaft Belgium, Crankshaft Belize, Crankshaft Benin, Crankshaft Bhutan, Crankshaft Bolivia, Crankshaft Bosnia Herzegovina, Crankshaft Botswana, Crankshaft Brazil, Crankshaft Brunei, Crankshaft Bulgaria, Crankshaft Burkina, Crankshaft Burundi, Crankshaft Cambodia, Crankshaft Cameroon, Crankshaft Canada, Crankshaft Cape Verde, Crankshaft Central African Rep, Crankshaft Chad, Crankshaft Chile, Crankshaft China, Crankshaft Colombia, Crankshaft Comoros, Crankshaft Congo, Crankshaft Congo {Democratic Rep}, Crankshaft Costa Rica, Crankshaft Croatia, Crankshaft Cuba, Crankshaft Cyprus, Crankshaft Czech Republic, Crankshaft Denmark, Crankshaft Djibouti, Crankshaft Dominica, Crankshaft Dominican Republic, Crankshaft East Timor, Crankshaft Ecuador, Crankshaft Egypt, Crankshaft El Salvador, Crankshaft Equatorial Guinea, Crankshaft Eritrea, Crankshaft Estonia, Crankshaft Ethiopia, Crankshaft Fiji, Crankshaft Finland, Crankshaft France, Crankshaft Gabon, Crankshaft Gambia, Crankshaft Georgia, Crankshaft Germany, Crankshaft Ghana, Crankshaft Greece, Crankshaft Grenada, Crankshaft Guatemala, Crankshaft Guinea, Crankshaft Guinea-Bissau, Crankshaft Guyana, Crankshaft Haiti, Crankshaft Honduras, Crankshaft Hungary, Crankshaft Iceland, Crankshaft India, Crankshaft Indonesia, Crankshaft Iran, Crankshaft Iraq, Crankshaft Ireland {Republic}, Crankshaft Israel, Crankshaft Italy, Crankshaft Ivory Coast, Crankshaft Jamaica, Crankshaft Japan, Crankshaft Jordan, Crankshaft Kazakhstan, Crankshaft Kenya, Crankshaft Kiribati, Crankshaft Korea North, Crankshaft Korea South, Crankshaft Kosovo, Crankshaft Kuwait, Crankshaft Kyrgyzstan, Crankshaft Laos, Crankshaft Latvia, Crankshaft Lebanon, Crankshaft Lesotho, Crankshaft Liberia, Crankshaft Libya, Crankshaft Liechtenstein, Crankshaft Lithuania, Crankshaft Luxembourg, Crankshaft Macedonia, Crankshaft Madagascar, Crankshaft Malawi, Crankshaft Malaysia, Crankshaft Maldives, Crankshaft Mali, Crankshaft Malta, Crankshaft Marshall Islands, Crankshaft Mauritania, Crankshaft Mauritius, Crankshaft Mexico, Crankshaft Micronesia, Crankshaft Moldova, Crankshaft Monaco, Crankshaft Mongolia, Crankshaft Montenegro, Crankshaft Morocco, Crankshaft Mozambique, Crankshaft Myanmar, {Burma}, Crankshaft Namibia, Crankshaft Nauru, Crankshaft Nepal, Crankshaft Netherlands, Crankshaft New Zealand, Crankshaft Nicaragua, Crankshaft Niger, Crankshaft Nigeria, Crankshaft Norway, Crankshaft Oman, Crankshaft Pakistan, Crankshaft Palau, Crankshaft Panama, Crankshaft Papua New Guinea, Crankshaft Paraguay, Crankshaft Peru, Crankshaft Philippines, Crankshaft Poland, Crankshaft Portugal, Crankshaft Qatar, Crankshaft Romania, Crankshaft Russian Federation, Crankshaft Rwanda, Crankshaft St Kitts & Nevis, Crankshaft St Lucia, Crankshaft Saint Vincent & the Grenadines, Crankshaft Samoa, Crankshaft San Marino, Crankshaft Sao Tome & Principe, Crankshaft Saudi Arabia, Crankshaft Senegal, Crankshaft Serbia, Crankshaft Seychelles, Crankshaft Sierra Leone, Crankshaft Singapore, Crankshaft Slovakia, Crankshaft Slovenia, Crankshaft Solomon Islands, Crankshaft Somalia, Crankshaft South Africa, Crankshaft Spain, Crankshaft Sri Lanka, Crankshaft Sudan, Crankshaft Suriname, Crankshaft Swaziland, Crankshaft Sweden, Crankshaft Switzerland, Crankshaft Syria, Crankshaft Taiwan, Crankshaft Tajikistan, Crankshaft Tanzania, Crankshaft Thailand, Crankshaft Togo, Crankshaft Tonga, Crankshaft Trinidad & Tobago, Crankshaft Tunisia, Crankshaft Turkey, Crankshaft Turkmenistan, Crankshaft Tuvalu, Crankshaft Uganda, Crankshaft Ukraine, Crankshaft United Arab Emirates, Crankshaft United Kingdom, Crankshaft United States, Crankshaft Uruguay, Crankshaft Uzbekistan, Crankshaft Vanuatu, Crankshaft Vatican City, Crankshaft Venezuela, Crankshaft Vietnam, Crankshaft Yemen, Crankshaft Zambia, Crankshaft Zimbabwe, etc.

Crankshaft in the United States

Crankshaft is also an object of search of many Americans, from all cities and states of the USA. The following phrases are usually used: Crankshaft New York City, Crankshaft NY, Crankshaft Los Angeles, Crankshaft LA, Crankshaft Chicago, Crankshaft Houston, Crankshaft Phoenix, Crankshaft Philadelphia, Crankshaft San Antonio, Crankshaft San Diego, Crankshaft Dallas, Crankshaft San Jose, Crankshaft Detroit, Crankshaft Jacksonville, Crankshaft Indianapolis, Crankshaft San Francisco, Crankshaft Columbus, Crankshaft Austin, Crankshaft Memphis, Crankshaft Fort Worth, Crankshaft Baltimore, Crankshaft Charlotte, Crankshaft El Paso, Crankshaft Milwaukee, Crankshaft Boston, Crankshaft Seattle, Crankshaft Denver, Crankshaft Washington, Crankshaft Alabama, Crankshaft Alaska, Crankshaft Arizona, Crankshaft Arkansas, Crankshaft California, Crankshaft Colorado, Crankshaft Connecticut, Crankshaft Delaware, Crankshaft Florida, Crankshaft Georgia, Crankshaft Hawaii, Crankshaft Idaho, Crankshaft Illinois, Crankshaft Indiana, Crankshaft Iowa, Crankshaft Kansas, Crankshaft Kentucky, Crankshaft Louisiana, Crankshaft Maine, Crankshaft Maryland, Crankshaft Massachusetts, Crankshaft Michigan, Crankshaft Minnesota, Crankshaft Mississippi, Crankshaft Missouri, Crankshaft Montana, Crankshaft Nebraska, Crankshaft Nevada, Crankshaft New Hampshire, Crankshaft New Jersey, Crankshaft New Mexico, Crankshaft New York, Crankshaft North Carolina, Crankshaft North Dakota, Crankshaft Ohio, Crankshaft Oklahoma, Crankshaft Oregon, Crankshaft Pennsylvania, Crankshaft Rhode Island, Crankshaft South Carolina, Crankshaft South Dakota, Crankshaft Tennessee, Crankshaft Texas, Crankshaft Utah, Crankshaft Vermont, Crankshaft Virginia, Crankshaft Washington, Crankshaft West Virginia, Crankshaft Wisconsin, Crankshaft Wyoming, etc.

   
Super Offers
Super Sale
Why qesign.com
18-Year Design Experience
24/7 Service, No Weekends
Lowest Fixed Prices
Exceptional Quality Guarantee
150+ Designs in the Portfolio
Pro Website Design Services
Pro Graphic Design Services
Pro Photo Editing Services
Fast & Easy Online Ordering
Various Payment Methods
Fast & Professional Support
Contact Us
Web: www.qesign.com
Email:
Twitter News: follow
RSS: subscribe
ICQ Chat: 11170351
MSN:
Skype Chat: qesigncom
Yahoo! Chat: qesigncom
AIM Chat: qesign1
GG Chat: qesign
Voicemail & Fax: 1.206.6666090
Special Offers
Related Offers
Premium website templates, deluxe graphic layoutsPremium Designs
Exclusively designed, deluxe web templates and layouts
Flash photo albums, Flash picture gallery templatesFlash Online Photo Albums
Dynamic Flash photo gallery templates, online photo albums
AllStockMusic stock music collection saleAllStockMusic
The best stock music collections for your projects
Photo store, picture shop, image saleRoyalty-Free Photos
Best pictures for a web design, graphic design, and printing
Webmaster software, web design software, graphic design softwareSoftware Sale
Best website design software and graphic design software
Low-cost, professional website hosting & domain registrationWeb Hosting Sale
hosting sale. Order now & save!


© 1996-2014 MAGIA Internet StudioAboutPortfolioPhoto on DemandHostingAdvertiseSitemapPrivacyMaria Online

Custom Logo Design  ▪  Ecommerce Insight  ▪  ID Card Printing  ▪  Add Your Link