1973 Constitution of Pakistan ▪ Sale
Constitution of Pakistan
State emblem of Pakistan.svg
Created 19 April 1973
Ratified 14 August 1973
Location Islamabad
Author(s) 12th Parliament
Signatories 12th Parliament
(unanimous)
Purpose To replace the Articles of the 1962 Confederation and LFO Order No. 1970

The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (Urdu:آئین پاکستان) is the supreme law of the State of Pakistan. The Constitution is supreme document of Pakistan which identifies the state (its physical existence and its borders), people and their fundamental rights, state's constitutional law and orders, and also the constitutional structure and establishment of the institutions and the country's armed forces. The first three chapters establish the rules, mandate, and separate powers of the three branches of the government: a legislature, a bicameral Parliament; an executive branch governed by the Prime Minister as chief executive; and an apex federal judiciary head by Supreme Court. The Constitution lay the establishment of President of Pakistan who is the ceremonial figurehead (head of state) and its role is to represent the unity of the state.

Drafted by the government of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, with an additionally assistance from the country's opposition parties, it was approved by the Parliament on April 10 and ratified on 14 August 1973. Unlike the previous legal documents of 1956 and 1962, the 1973 constitution cannot be changed; instead, constitutional amendments are added to it, altering its effect.

The first six articles of the constitution outlines the political system as federal parliamentary republic system; as well as Islam as its state religion. The Constitution guides Pakistan's law and its political culture, system and its physical existence. It has been amended over time, and most recent impulses for political upgrades and reforms has been amended. Although enforced in 1973, Pakistan, however, celebrates the adoption of the constitution on 23 March- when the first set was promulgated in 1956- each and every year as Republic Day.

Origins and historical background

Previous legislation as Source

Main article: Pakistan Movement

The successful movement led the establishment of Pakistan, independent from British India in 1947. The British Empire divided the British India in two dominion: India and Pakistan.

The provisions of the Government of India Act, 1935, had greatly influenced the state and served its legal document until 1956. In 1950, Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan author the first annex that would paved a path in drafting of the Constitution. Elected in 1947, the first Constituent Assembly drafted and adopted its first constitution in 1956

1956 Constitution

Main article: Constitution of Pakistan of 1956

Following the adoption of Constitution in India in 1950 invited Pakistan's lawmakers to work on their constitution. Prime Minister Muhammad Ali and his government officials worked with the opposition parties in the country to formulate a constitution for Pakistan.

Finally, the joint work led to the promulgation of the first set of the constitution on 23 March 1956– a day where Pakistan celebrates its Republic Day over the adoption of the Constitution. The Constitution provided for parliamentary form of government with a unicameral legislature. It officially adopted Pakistan as "Islamic Republic" and the principle of parity was introduced. Its features were:

By the constitution, Iskander Mirza assumed the presidency but his constant involvement in national affairs, as oppose to Constitution, dismissed four elected Prime Ministers in mere two years. Under public pressure, President Iskander Mirza upheld the coup d'état in 1958; thus virtually suspending the constitution. Shortly afterwards General Ayub Khan deposed Iskandar and declared himself president.

1962 Constitution

Main article: Constitution of Pakistan of 1962

General Ayub Khan appointed a Constitution Commission to draft another part of the constitution under Chief Justice Muhammad Shahabuddin. Submitted its considerations on 6 May 1961, Ayub Khan altered the entire version of the constitution which was entirely different from the one recommended by Chief Justice Muhammad Shahabuddin. It was promulgated on 8 June 1962. Main feature of this set was the introduction of the Presidential system and more consolidated powers to the President. No further changes were carried out to oppose the 1956 document. Its features includes:

1970 Legal Framework Order

Main article: Legal Framework Order, 1970

President Ayub Khan invited Chief of Army Staff General Yahya Khan to enforce the martial law in country. On assuming the presidency, General Yahya Khan acceded to popular demands by abolishing the one-unit system in West Pakistan and ordered general elections on the principle of one man, one vote.

The military government and President Yahya himself made no efforts to frame a constitution, aside from issuing the extrajudicial order in 1970. In all over the country, the expectations were that a National Assembly would be set up by holding a free and fair election. In order to hold the proposed elections, President Yahya promulgated a Legal Framework Order on 30 March 1970 that also spelled out the fundamental principles of the proposed constitution and the structure and composition of the national and provincial assemblies.

In December 1970, a national-wide general elections were held simultaneously for both the national and five provincial assemblies. The polling results turned were simply disastrous from the standpoint of national unity and demonstrated the failure of national integration. No party enjoyed the full confidence of the people of Pakistan. The nationalist Awami League (AL) secured the mandate of East Pakistan but failed to perform in any four provinces of Pakistan. The socialist Pakistan People’s Party (PPP) under the leadership of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto gained mandate in the four provinces but failed in the East Pakistan. The general elections truly reflected the ugly political reality: the PPP's mandate in Pakistan and AL mandate in East Pakistan.

1970 constitutional crises

Constitutional crises grew further when AL refused to make concessions over its six points to draft the constitution and instead maintaining that AL had was quiet competent to frame a constitution and to form a central government on its own.

The PPP was not willing to dilute the authority of the federal government in spite of assuring full provincial autonomy for all the provinces of Pakistan. Negotiations on framing the work on constitution were held between January and March 1971 between leaders of PPP, AL, and the military government of Yahya Khan, which turned out to be a failure. Under the LFO, the President Yahya was to decide when the National Assembly was to meet. By 13 February 1971, the President Yahya announced that the National Assembly was to meet at Dhaka on 3 March 1971. By this time the differences between the main parties to the conflict had already crystallized. The East Pakistan Army which was operating more or less independently of Islamabad was committing human rights abuses and was making negotiations even more difficult. Over the six point issue, the PPP was convinced that a federation based on six point would lead to a feeble confederation in name only and was part of larger Indian plan to break up the Pakistan. On 14 January, President Yahya announced Mujibur Rahman as the Prime Minister of Pakistan which prompted Zulfikar Ali Bhutto to boycott the National Assembly on 15 February. Talking to the news media, Mujibur Rahman strongly asserted that "Our stand is absolutely clear. The constitution will be framed on the basis of the six points"'.

Such announcement led the PPP to demand the removal of the National Assembly session or opening session to be postponed. The PPP threatened to stage a large scale general strike in all over the country. Under pressured by PPP, President Yahya postponed the National Assembly session on 25 March which came as a shattering disillusionment to the AL and their supporters throughout East Pakistan. It was seen as a betrayal and as proof of the authorities of the Pakistan to deny them the fruits of their electoral victory. This resulted in the outbreak of violence in East Pakistan. The Awami League launched a non-cooperation movement and virtually they controlled the entire province. Due to disturbances in East Pakistan, no National Assembly session was called and the military moved in East Pakistan to control the situation. The civil disobedience movement turned into armed liberation movement backed by the India.

With India successfully intervening in the conflict, the Pakistan military surrender to the Indian military and almost over ~93,000 military personnel were taken as prisoners of war on 16 December 1971. Demoralized, gaining notoriety in the country, and finding himself unable to control the situation, President Yahya ultimately handed over the national power to PPP, of which, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto was sworned in on 20 December 1971 as President and as the (first civilian) Chief Martial Law Administrator.

Constitutional convention

As Pakistan surrendered to India and Bangladesh being formed in 1971, The PPP formed the government and partially enacted the 1962 constitution. President Zulfikar Ali Bhutto called for the constitutional convention and invited the leaders of the all political parties to meet him on 17 April 1972. Leaders and constitutional experts of the Islamic political parties, conservative parties, socialists and communist parties were delegated to attend the constitutional convention in 1972.

Drafting and ratification

Enlightenment and Rule of law

The law experts, constitutional analysts, and country's reputed clergymen worked on formulating the constitution that represents the will and desire of people. Unlike earlier attempts, the convention was not meant for new laws or piecemeal alterations, but for the "sole and express purpose of revising the 1956 articles." Also, the convention was not limited to the religion, exigencies of government and the preservation of the State; rather it was intended to maintain delicacy in commerce, finances, issue of loans to federation, and Separation of powers. Several key ideas of the philosophy of John Locke and Islamic provisions on civil rights were interchanged in the Constitution.

The Constitution ultimately established the "Bicameral Parliament"National Assembly as Lower house and Senate as Upper house. It also established the parliamentary form of government with Prime Minister as its head of government; the elected National Assembly genuinely representing the will of the people. The Constitution truly maintained a delicate balance between traditionalists and modernists and reflected heavy compromises on fundamental religious rights in the country. The fundamental rights, freedoms of speech, religion, press, movement, association, thought, and intellectual, life, liberty and property and right to bear arms were introduced in the new Constitution. Islam was declared as the State religion of Pakistan. Geography and border statue of the country was redefined and "Pakistan was to be a Federation of Four Provinces." The Constitution was written in the point of representing the conservative Islam as well as reflecting a heavy compromise over the religious rights and humanism ideas, advocated by the extremist leftists of the PPP.

On 20 October 1972, the draft was revived by all leaders of the political parties and signed the declaration of adopting the Constitution in the National Assembly on 2 February 1973. Ratified unanimously on 19 April 1973, the Constitution came into full effect on 14 August 1973. On the same day, the successful vote of confidence movement in the Parliament endorsed Zulfikar Bhutto as the elected Prime Minister after latter relinquishing the presidency after appointing Fazal-i-Ilahi to that stint.

Structure

Fundamental rights

Contrary to 1956 and 1962 articles, several ideas in the Constitution were new, and guaranteed security of the each citizens of Pakistan. First part of the Constitution introduce the definition of State, the idea of life, liberty and property, individual equality, prohibition of slavery, preservation of languages, right to fair trail, and provided safeguard as to arrest and detention as well as providing safeguards against discrimination in services.

The due process clause of the Constitution was partly based on the British Common law, as many founding fathers of the country and the legal experts had follow the British legal tradition. The fundamental rights are supreme in the Constitution and any law that is ultra vires the fundamental rights can be struck down by the apex courts in their constitutional jurisdiction vested on them under Article 199 of the Constitution.

Provisions

As contrary to its compatible Constitution of India and Bangladesh, the Constitution reflected a heavy compromise over the several issues to maintain delicate balance of power in country's institutions. First time, the Constitution defines the role of Islam; Pakistan was to be a Federation of Four Provinces and shall be known as the Islamic Republic of Pakistan; introduction of check and balances, separation of powers, and provided the federal system under which the government should governed.

The Constitution established a "Bicameral Parliament" as a legislative authority that consists of the Senate as Upper house (providing equal provincial representation), and National Assembly as Lower house (providing the will and representation of people). The Constitution put stipulation on the eligibility of becoming President and Prime Minister that only "Muslim" of not less than forty-five years of age and is qualified for becoming the Prime Minister. No law repugnant to Islam shall be enacted and the present laws shall also be Islamised. The Constitution also introduced a new institution known as the "Council of Common Interests" consisting of Chief Minister of each four provinces and an equal number of Cabinet ministers of the Government nominated by the Prime Minister. The Council could formulate and regulate the policy in the Part II of the Legislative List. In case of complaint of interference in water supply by any province the Council would look into the complaint.

Another major innovative introduction in the Constitution is the establishment of the National Finance Commission (NFC) consisting of the Provincial and Finance Ministers and other members to advice on distribution of revenues between the federation and the provinces. The Constitution's first parts introduce the Islamic way of life, promotion of local government, full participation of women in national life, protection of minorities, promotion of social and economic well being of the people, and strengthening the bonds with the Muslim world and to work for international peace.

The Islamic laws and Sharia

Under the Constitution, the Fundamental Rights include security of person, safeguards as to arrest and detention, prohibition of slavery and forced labour, freedom of movement, freedom of association, freedom of speech, freedom to profess religion and safeguards to religious institutions, non-discrimination in respect of access to public places and in service, preservation of languages, script and culture. The judiciary enjoys full supremacy over the other organs of the state. About national languages, Urdu was declared as national languages, and English as official language; all other languages were preserved by the Constitution.

Islamic introduction

Many key ideas on regarding the role of Islam in the State that were mentioned in 1956 Articles were made part of the Constitution:

  • The official name "Islamic Republic of Pakistan" as selected for the state of Pakistan.
  • Islam is declared as the state religion of Pakistan.
  • Enabling of living life, culture, and customs of Muslims, individually or collectively, in accordance with the fundamental principles and basic concepts of Islam.
  • Teachings on Arabic, Qur'an, and Islamiyat to be compulsory in country's institutions and to secure correct and exact printing and publishing of the Qur'an.
  • Proper organisations of Zakat, Waqf, and mosques is ensured.
  • Prevent prostitution, gambling and consumption of alcohol, printing, publication, circulation, pornography, and display of obscene literature and advertisements.
  • Required to be a Muslim in order to run for bid of becoming the President (male or female) and/or Prime Minister (male or female). No restriction as to religion or gender on any other post, up to and including provincial governor and Chief Minister.
  • All existing laws shall be brought in conformity with the injunctions of Islam as laid down in the Qur'an and Sunnah and no law shall be enacted which is repugnant to such injunctions.
  • A Council of Islamic Ideology shall be constituted referred to as the Islamic advisory council.
  • For the first time, the Constitution of Pakistan gave definition of a Muslim which states: 'Muslim' means a person who believes in the unity and oneness of Allah, in the absolute and unqualified finality of the Prophethood of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad, and does not believe in, or recognise as a prophet or religious reformer, any person who claimed or claims to be a prophet, in any sense of the word or of any description whatsoever, after Muhammad.
  • The state shall endeavor to strengthen the bonds of unity among Muslim countries.
  • The Second Amendment to the Constitution declared for the first time the Ahmadiyya Community and/or the Lahori Group as non-Muslims, and their leader, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, who claimed to be prophet of God, to which mainstream Muslims do not agree with.
  • Islamic revisions and introduction in Pakistan Penal Code.

Parts

The individual Articles of the Constitution are grouped together into the following Parts:

  • Preamble
  • Part I- Introductory [Articles 1-6]
  • Part II- Fundamental Rights and Principles of Policy [Articles 7-40]
  • Part III- The Federation of Pakistan [Articles 41-100]
  • Part IV- Provinces [Articles 101-140A]
  • Part V- Relations between Federation and Provinces [Articles 141-159]
  • Part VI- Finance, Property, Contracts and Suits [Articles 160-174]
  • Part VII- The Judicature [Articles 175-212]
  • Part VIII- Elections [Articles 213-226]
  • Part IX- Islamic Provisions [Articles 227-231]
  • Part X- Emergency Provisions [Articles 232-237]
  • Part XI- Amendment of Constitution [Articles 238-239]
  • Part XII- Miscellaneous [Articles 240-280]

Annex

Schedule

Schedules are lists in the Constitution that categorize and tabulate bureaucratic activity and policy of the Government.

Amendments

Main article: Amendments to the Constitution of Pakistan

Unlike the previous documents, the Constitution cannot be change, instead constitutional amendments are passed; altering its effect. Amendment to the Constitution are made through the Parliament, where a Two-thirds majority and voting is required in both houses for a constitutional amendment to take its effect, in accordance to the Constitution. In addition to this, certain amendments which pertain to the federal nature of the Constitution must be ratified by a majority of state legislatures.

Since 1974 till 2012, there have been 20 amendment bills that were interchanged in the Constitution. At recent, the Eighth (1985) and Seventeenth Amendment (2004) changed the government from a parliamentary system to a semi-presidential system. However in 2010, the Eighteenth reversed the major legislation efforts made in 1985 and 2004, and effectively reduce presidential powers, returning the government to a parliamentary republic and also defining any attempt to subvert, abrogate, or suspend the constitution as an act of high treason.

Original text

Preamble

Main article: Objectives Resolution

Whereas sovereignty over the entire Universe belongs to Almighty Allah alone, and the authority to be exercised by the people of Pakistan within the limits prescribed by Him is a sacred trust;

And whereas it is the will of the people of Pakistan to establish an order :-

Wherein the State shall exercise its powers and authority through the chosen representatives of the people;

Wherein the principles of democracy, freedom, equality, tolerance and social justice, as enunciated by Islam, shall be fully observed;

Wherein the Muslims shall be enabled to order their lives in the individual and collective spheres in accordance with the teachings and requirements of Islam as set out in the Holy Quran and Sunnah;

Wherein adequate provision shall be made for the minorities freely to profess and practise their religions and develop their cultures;

Wherein the territories now included in or in accession with Pakistan and such other territories as may hereafter be included in or accede to Pakistan shall form a Federation wherein the units will be autonomous with such boundaries and limitations on their powers and authority as may be prescribed;

Therein shall be guaranteed fundamental rights, including equality of status, of opportunity and before law, social, economic and political justice, and freedom of thought, expression, belief, faith, worship and association, subject to law and public morality;

Wherein adequate provision shall be made to safeguard the legitimate interests of minorities and backward and depressed classes;

Wherein the independence of the judiciary shall be fully secured;

Wherein the integrity of the territories of the Federation, its independence and all its rights, including its sovereign rights on land, sea and air, shall be safeguarded;

So that the people of Pakistan may prosper and attain their rightful and honoured place amongst the nations of the World and make their full contribution towards international peace and progress and happiness of humanity :

Now, therefore, we, the people of Pakistan,

Cognisant of our responsibility before Almighty Allah and men;

Cognisant of the sacrifices made by the people in the cause of Pakistan;

Faithful to the declaration made by the Founder of Pakistan, Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah, that Pakistan would be a democratic State based on Islamic principles of social justice;

Dedicated to the preservation of democracy achieved by the unremitting struggle of the people against oppression and tyranny;

Inspired by the resolve to protect our national and political unity and solidarity by creating an egalitarian society through a new order;

Do hereby, through our representatives in the National Assembly, adopt, enact and give to ourselves, this Constitution.

Comparison with previous sources

With regard to provincial rights the 1973 constitution was in fact the most centralised of Pakistan's various constitutions. The Government of India Act of 1935, which Pakistan adopted as its first working constitution, granted the federal government 96 items of power. The 1956 constitution reduced that number to 49, and this was retained in the 1962 constitution. In 1973, however, it was then enlarged to 114.

See also

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References

  1. Abiad, Nisrine (2008). Sharia, Muslim states and international human rights treaty obligations : a comparative study. London: British Institute of International and Comparative Law. pp. 96–200. ISBN  - get this book. 
  2. Constitution of Pakistan. "Constitution of Pakistan". Constitution of Pakistan. Constitution of Pakistan. 
  3. "Part III. The Federation of Pakistan: Chapter 1; The President". Const. of Pakistan. Const. of Pakistan. 
  4. Enterprise Team (Jun 1, 2003). "The Constitution of 1973`". The Story of Pakistan. The Story of Pakistan. 
  5. Iftikhar A. Khan (24 June 2012). "Parliament can’t make laws repugnant to Constitution: CJ". Dawn News. 
  6. "First Six Articles.". 
  7. et. al., Govt of Pakistan. "Constitutional history of Pakistan". National Assembly of Pakistan press. 
  8. others contribution, et. al. "The Constitution of 1956". Story of Pakistan. Nazaria-e-Pakistan, part I. 
  9. The First Martial Law
  10. et. al. "The Constitution of 1962". Story of Pakistan. Nazaria-e-Pakistan, Part II. 
  11. This was the system that had merged all the provinces of West Pakistan into one unit. General Yahya restored autonomy of the old provinces of Sindh, the Punjab, and the North West Frontier Province and created the new province of Baluchistan.
  12. Ghazali, Abdus Sattar (14 August 1999). "Chapter V:The Second Martial Law". Islamic Pakistan: Illusions and Reality. Lahore, Punjab: University of Punjab Press. 
  13. Ghazali, Abdus Sattar. "Chapter VII : The Third Islamic Republic". Islamic Pakistan. Punjab University Press, Chapter 7. 
  14. et. al. "Constitution of Pakistan". Story of Pakistan. Nazaria-e-Pakistan, Part IV. 
  15. Korson, ed. by J. Henry (1974). "Islam and the New Constitution of Pakistan" (google books). Contemporary problems of Pakistan. Leiden: Brill. ISBN  - get this book. 
  16. Kugelman, Michael. "More Alike Than You'd Think: Six Things the U.S. and Pakistan Have in Common". Hufftington Post (Hufftington Post). Hufftington Post. 
  17. Ali, Sarmad (12 December 2013). "Pakistan and Social Contract". Daily Times. Daily Times. 
  18. Siddiqui, Tariq Moin (21 July 2013). "Constitution of Pakistan". GEO Documentary (GEO News area studies) (GEO Television Network). GEO Television Network. 
  19. Gerges, James Wynbrandt ; foreword by Fawaz A. (2008). A brief history of Pakistan. New York: Facts On File. ISBN  - get this book. 
  20. Articles 8–28 in the Part II: Chapter 1: Fundamental Rights and Principles of Policy of the Constitution of Pakistan
  21. Hamdani, Yasir Latif. "Challenges to Fundamental Right of Freedom of Speech in Pakistan". 
  22. Article 199(1)–199(5b) in the Part VII: Chapter 3: Chapter 3: The High Courts of the Constitution of Pakistan
  23. Article 2 in Part I: Introductory of the Constitution of Pakistan: "Islam shall be the State religion of Pakistan."
  24. Article 1(1)–1(2) in Part I: Introductory of the Constitution of Pakistan
  25. Article 1(3) in Part I: Introductory of the Constitution of Pakistan
  26. Article 50(1)–89(3b) in Part III: Chapter 2: Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) of the Constitution of Pakistan
  27. Article 41(1)–41(2) of Part III:Chapter 1: The President of the Constitution of Pakistan
  28. Article 91(3) in Part III: Chapter 3: The Federal Government of the Constitution of Pakistan
  29. Article 227(1) in the Part IX: Islamic Provisions of the Constitution of Pakistan
  30. Articles 153–159(5) of Part V:Chapter 3: Special Provisions of the Constitution of Pakistan
  31. Article 160–160(5) in Part VI:Chapter 1: Finance of the Constitution of Pakistan
  32. Article 251–251(3) in Part XII: Chapter 4: General in the Constitution of Pakistan
  33. Article 227(1)–227(3) in Part IX: Islamic Provisions of the Constitution of Pakistan
  34. Article 228(1)–228(6) in Part IX: Islamic Provisions of the Constitution of Pakistan
  35. Part I: Introductory of the Constitution of Pakistan
  36. Part II Part II: Fundamental Rights and Principles of Policy of the Constitution of Pakistan
  37. Part III: The Federation of Pakistan of the Constitution of Pakistan
  38. Part IV: Provinces of the Constitution of Pakistan
  39. Part V: Relations between Federation and Provinces of the Constitution of Pakistan
  40. Part VI: Finance, Property, Contracts and Suit of the Constitution of Pakistan
  41. Part VII: The Judicature of the Constitution of Pakistan
  42. Part VIII: The Elections of the Constitution of Pakistan
  43. Part IX: Islamic Provisions of the Constitution of Pakistan
  44. Part X: Emergency Provisions of the Constitution of Pakistan
  45. Part XI: Amendment of Constitution of the Constitution of Pakistan
  46. Part XII: Miscellaneous of the Constitution of Pakistan
  47. First Schedule of the Constitution of Pakistan
  48. Second Schedule of the Constitution of Pakistan
  49. Third Schedule of the Constitution of Pakistan
  50. Fourth Schedule of the Constitution of Pakistan
  51. Fifth Schedule of the Constitution of Pakistan
  52. Article 239(1)–Article 239(6) in Part XI: Amendment of Constitution of the Constitution of Pakistan
  53. Article 239(4) in Part XI: Amendment of Constitution of the Constitution of Pakistan

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1973 Constitution of Pakistan Honduras, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Hungary, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Iceland, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan India, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Indonesia, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Iran, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Iraq, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Ireland {Republic}, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Israel, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Italy, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Ivory Coast, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Jamaica, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Japan, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Jordan, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Kazakhstan, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Kenya, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Kiribati, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Korea North, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Korea South, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Kosovo, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Kuwait, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Kyrgyzstan, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Laos, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Latvia, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Lebanon, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Lesotho, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Liberia, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Libya, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Liechtenstein, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Lithuania, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Luxembourg, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Macedonia, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Madagascar, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Malawi, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Malaysia, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Maldives, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Mali, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Malta, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Marshall Islands, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Mauritania, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Mauritius, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Mexico, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Micronesia, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Moldova, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Monaco, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Mongolia, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Montenegro, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Morocco, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Mozambique, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Myanmar, {Burma}, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Namibia, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Nauru, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Nepal, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Netherlands, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan New Zealand, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Nicaragua, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Niger, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Nigeria, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Norway, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Oman, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Pakistan, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Palau, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Panama, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Papua New Guinea, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Paraguay, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Peru, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Philippines, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Poland, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Portugal, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Qatar, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Romania, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Russian Federation, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Rwanda, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan St Kitts & Nevis, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan St Lucia, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Saint Vincent & the Grenadines, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Samoa, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan San Marino, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Sao Tome & Principe, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Saudi Arabia, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Senegal, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Serbia, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Seychelles, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Sierra Leone, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Singapore, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Slovakia, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Slovenia, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Solomon Islands, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Somalia, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan South Africa, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Spain, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Sri Lanka, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Sudan, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Suriname, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Swaziland, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Sweden, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Switzerland, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Syria, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Taiwan, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Tajikistan, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Tanzania, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Thailand, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Togo, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Tonga, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Trinidad & Tobago, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Tunisia, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Turkey, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Turkmenistan, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Tuvalu, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Uganda, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Ukraine, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan United Arab Emirates, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan United Kingdom, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan United States, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Uruguay, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Uzbekistan, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Vanuatu, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Vatican City, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Venezuela, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Vietnam, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Yemen, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Zambia, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Zimbabwe, etc.

1973 Constitution of Pakistan in the United States

1973 Constitution of Pakistan is also an object of search of many Americans, from all cities and states of the USA. The following phrases are usually used: 1973 Constitution of Pakistan New York City, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan NY, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Los Angeles, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan LA, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Chicago, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Houston, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Phoenix, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Philadelphia, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan San Antonio, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan San Diego, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Dallas, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan San Jose, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Detroit, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Jacksonville, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Indianapolis, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan San Francisco, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Columbus, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Austin, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Memphis, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Fort Worth, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Baltimore, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Charlotte, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan El Paso, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Milwaukee, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Boston, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Seattle, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Denver, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Washington, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Alabama, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Alaska, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Arizona, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Arkansas, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan California, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Colorado, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Connecticut, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Delaware, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Florida, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Georgia, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Hawaii, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Idaho, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Illinois, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Indiana, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Iowa, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Kansas, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Kentucky, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Louisiana, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Maine, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Maryland, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Massachusetts, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Michigan, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Minnesota, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Mississippi, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Missouri, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Montana, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Nebraska, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Nevada, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan New Hampshire, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan New Jersey, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan New Mexico, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan New York, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan North Carolina, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan North Dakota, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Ohio, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Oklahoma, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Oregon, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Pennsylvania, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Rhode Island, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan South Carolina, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan South Dakota, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Tennessee, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Texas, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Utah, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Vermont, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Virginia, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Washington, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan West Virginia, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Wisconsin, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan Wyoming, etc.

   
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