Damascus Protocol ▪ SaleArticle with links
Damascus Protocol
The "ARAB STATE" (green) as promised to the Hashemites by the Protocol of Damascus (1914), later disrupted by the Sykes-Picot agreement and League of nations mandates.

The Damascus Protocol was a document given to Faisal bin Hussein by the Arab secret societies al-Fatat and Al-'Ahd on his second visit to Damascus during a mission to consult Turkish officials in Constantinople (1914). The secret societies declared they would support Faisal's father Hussein bin Ali's revolt against the Ottoman Empire, if the demands in the protocol were submitted to the British. These demands, defining the territory of an independent Arab state to be established in the Middle East that would encompass all of the lands of western Asia, then became the basis of the conversation in the Hussein-McMahon Correspondence.

Background

Damascus Protocol
Sayyid Hussein bin Ali, Sharif and Emir of Mecca, King of Hejaz

The Text

As cited by R, John and S. Hadawi's, Palestine Diary, pp. 30–31, the 'Damascus Protocol' stated:

"The recognition by Great Britain of the independence of the Arab countries lying within the following frontiers: North: The Line Mersin_Adana to parallel 37N. and thence along the line Birejek-Urga-Mardin-Kidiat-Jazirat (Ibn 'Unear)-Amadia to the Persian frontier; East: The Persian frontier down to the Persian Gulf; South: The Indian Ocean (with the exclusion of Aden, whose status was to be maintained). West: The Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea back to Mersin. The abolition of all exceptional privileges granted to foreigners under the capitulations. The conclusion of a defensive alliance between Great Britain and the future independent Arab State. The grant of economic preference to Great Britain.".

Negotiations with Kitchener

On 5 February 1914 the Sharif's son Abdullah met Herbert Kitchener, British Governor General of Egypt and the Sudan, in Cairo and asked him whether Hussein could rely on British support in the event of Turkish moves against the Hejaz. At this point Kitchener could offer no encouragement, but two months later Abdullah met with Kitchener's Oriental Secretary, Sir Ronald Storrs, and was given the assurance that Great Britain would guarantee the status quo in Arabia against "wanton Turkish aggression".

Damascus Protocol
Abdullah I bin al-Hussein, King of Jordan (1949 - 1951) was born in Mecca, Ottoman Empire (currently Saudi Arabia)

British reluctance to oppose the Turks evaporated following the onset of war in August 1914. Kitchener, now Secretary of State for War, sent a message to Abdullah asking whether the Arabs would support Great Britain if Turkey joined the war on the side of Germany. Abdullah responded that the Sharif would support Britain in return for British support against the Turks.

Damascus Protocol
Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener

By the time of Kitchener's reply in October the Turks had joined the Germans,

Kitchener now stated that if the Amir and the 'Arab Nation' supported Britain in the war, the British would recognise and support the independence of the Amirate and of the Arabs and, further, would guarantee Arabia against external aggression. And then Kitchener gratuitously and on his own authority added a phrase that would generate controversy in London and the Middle East for years to come. 'It may be,' he concluded, 'that an Arab of the true race will assume the Caliphate at Mecca or Medina and so good may come by the help of God out of all the evil that is now occurring'.

In his reply Hussein did not mention the Caliphate but said that he could not immediately break with the Turks because of his position in Islam.

The Turks declare Jihad

On 11 November 1914 the Turks declared a jihad against the Entente (Allies of World War I) and urged the Arab leader Husayn bin Ali, Sharif of Mecca, to support the call and to contribute troops to their forces.

Shortly after this declaration Hussein was approached by a representative of the Arab secret societies al-Fatat and Al-'Ahd who came to Mecca in January 1915 with the aim of persuading the Sharif to become leader of a revolt against the Ottomans. At the same time Hussein's eldest son Ali bin Hussein uncovered a Turkish plot to depose the Sharif in favour of Ali Haidar, head of the dispossessed Motallib branch of the Sharifian family. Hussein ordered his son Faisal to confront the Grand Vizier in Constantinople with evidence of the plot, but also to stop in Damascus to explore the viability of a revolt with the leaders of the secret socieities, which he did on 26 March 1915. After a month of talks Faisal was unconvinced of the strength of the Arab movement and concluded that a revolt would not succeed without the assistance of one of the Great Powers. On reaching Constantinople in April and receiving the news that an Arab declaration of jihad was viewed as essential by the Turks Faisal became equally concerned about his family's position in the Hejaz.

On his return journey Faisal visited Damascus to resume talks with al-Fatat and Al-'Ahd and joined their revolutionary movement. It was during this visit that Faisal was presented with the document that became known as the 'Damascus Protocol'. The document declared that the Arabs would revolt in alliance with Great Britain in return for recognition of Arab independence in an area running from the 37th parallel north on the southern border of Turkey, bounded in the east by Persia and the Persian Gulf, in the west by the Mediterranean Sea and in the south by the Arabian Sea.

Meeting at Ta'if

Following deliberations at Ta'if between Hussein and his sons in June 1915, during which Faisal counselled caution, Ali argued against rebellion and Abdullah advocated action, the Sharif set a tentative date for armed revolt for June 1916 and commenced negotiations with the British High Commissioner in Egypt, Sir Henry McMahon via the Hussein-McMahon Correspondence.

Notes

  1. Herzog, 1975, p. 213.
  2. Ismael, 1991, p. 65.
  3. see also King Husain and the Kingdom of Hejaz, By Randall Baker, Oleander Press, 1979, ISBN 0-900891-48-3, pages 64-65
  4. Paris, 2003, p. 22.
  5. Paris, 2003, p. 23.
  6. British Imperial Connexions to the Arab National Movement, 1912-1914, accessed 8 April 2007.
  7. Paris, 2003, p. 24.

References

Source of information: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - Disclaimer.

Popular search requests

Damascus Protocol is an object of interest for many people. For example, the people often search for Damascus Protocol website, Damascus Protocol blog, Damascus Protocol online, Damascus Protocol information, Damascus Protocol photo, Damascus Protocol picture, Damascus Protocol video, Damascus Protocol movie, Damascus Protocol history, Damascus Protocol news, Damascus Protocol facts, Damascus Protocol description, Damascus Protocol detailed info, Damascus Protocol features, Damascus Protocol manual, Damascus Protocol instructions, Damascus Protocol comparison, Damascus Protocol book, Damascus Protocol story, Damascus Protocol article, Damascus Protocol review, Damascus Protocol feedbacks, Damascus Protocol selection, Damascus Protocol data, Damascus Protocol address, Damascus Protocol phone number, download Damascus Protocol, Damascus Protocol reference, Damascus Protocol wikipedia, Damascus Protocol facebook, Damascus Protocol twitter, Damascus Protocol 2013, Damascus Protocol 2014, Damascus Protocol 2015, Damascus Protocol in spring, Damascus Protocol in summer, Damascus Protocol in autumn, Damascus Protocol in winter, Damascus Protocol in January, Damascus Protocol in February, Damascus Protocol in March, Damascus Protocol in April, Damascus Protocol in May, Damascus Protocol in June, Damascus Protocol in July, Damascus Protocol in August, Damascus Protocol in September, Damascus Protocol in October, Damascus Protocol in November, Damascus Protocol in December, Damascus Protocol on Monday, Damascus Protocol on Thuesday, Damascus Protocol on Wednesday, Damascus Protocol on Thursday, Damascus Protocol on Friday, Damascus Protocol on Saturday, Damascus Protocol Sunday, Damascus Protocol holidays, Damascus Protocol on New Year's Eve, Damascus Protocol on New Year's Day, Damascus Protocol on Christmas, Damascus Protocol on Easter, Damascus Protocol on Memorial Day, Damascus Protocol on Labor Day, Damascus Protocol on Independence Day, Damascus Protocol on Veterans Day, Damascus Protocol on Thanksgiving Day, Damascus Protocol on St. Valentine's Day, Damascus Protocol on Halloween, Damascus Protocol on Good Friday, Damascus Protocol on Black Friday, Damascus Protocol on Groundhog Day, Damascus Protocol on Mardi Gras, Damascus Protocol on Mother's Day, Damascus Protocol on Father's, Damascus Protocol on St. Patrick's Day, Damascus Protocol on April Fools' Day, Damascus Protocol on Hanukkah, Damascus Protocol on weekend, Damascus Protocol working time, Damascus Protocol today, Damascus Protocol at morning, Damascus Protocol at evening, Damascus Protocol at night, Damascus Protocol tonight, Damascus Protocol in the past, Damascus Protocol in the future, Damascus Protocol in the United States, Damascus Protocol USA, Damascus Protocol US, Damascus Protocol in United Kingdom, Damascus Protocol UK, Damascus Protocol in Canada, Damascus Protocol in Australia, etc.

Damascus Protocol is also an object of commercial interest. For example, many people are interested in Damascus Protocol offers, Damascus Protocol buy, Damascus Protocol sell, Damascus Protocol sale, Damascus Protocol discounts, discounted Damascus Protocol, Damascus Protocol coupon, Damascus Protocol promo code, Damascus Protocol order, to order Damascus Protocol online, to buy Damascus Protocol, how much for Damascus Protocol, Damascus Protocol price, Damascus Protocol cost, Damascus Protocol price list, Damascus Protocol tariffs, Damascus Protocol rates, Damascus Protocol prices, Damascus Protocol delivery, Damascus Protocol store, Damascus Protocol online store, Damascus Protocol online shop, inexpensive Damascus Protocol, cheap Damascus Protocol, Damascus Protocol for free, free Damascus Protocol, used Damascus Protocol, and so on.

Besides, a date and time do matter, for example: Damascus Protocol 2013, Damascus Protocol 2014, Damascus Protocol 2015, Damascus Protocol in spring, Damascus Protocol in summer, Damascus Protocol in autumn, Damascus Protocol in winter, Damascus Protocol in January, Damascus Protocol in February, Damascus Protocol in March, Damascus Protocol in April, Damascus Protocol in May, Damascus Protocol in June, Damascus Protocol in July, Damascus Protocol in August, Damascus Protocol in September, Damascus Protocol in October, Damascus Protocol in November, Damascus Protocol in December, Damascus Protocol on Monday, Damascus Protocol on Thuesday, Damascus Protocol on Wednesday, Damascus Protocol on Thursday, Damascus Protocol on Friday, Damascus Protocol on Saturday, Damascus Protocol Sunday, Damascus Protocol holidays, Damascus Protocol on New Year's Eve, Damascus Protocol on New Year's Day, Damascus Protocol on Christmas, Damascus Protocol on Easter, Damascus Protocol on Memorial Day, Damascus Protocol on Labor Day, Damascus Protocol on Independence Day, Damascus Protocol on Veterans Day, Damascus Protocol on Thanksgiving Day, Damascus Protocol on St. Valentine's Day, Damascus Protocol on Halloween, Damascus Protocol on Good Friday, Damascus Protocol on Black Friday, Damascus Protocol on Groundhog Day, Damascus Protocol on Mardi Gras, Damascus Protocol on Mother's Day, Damascus Protocol on Father's, Damascus Protocol on St. Patrick's Day, Damascus Protocol on April Fools' Day, Damascus Protocol on Hanukkah, Damascus Protocol on weekend, Damascus Protocol working time, Damascus Protocol today, Damascus Protocol at morning, Damascus Protocol at evening, Damascus Protocol at night, Damascus Protocol tonight, Damascus Protocol in the past, Damascus Protocol in the future, etc.

Damascus Protocol worldwide

Damascus Protocol is an object of interest of the people from all countries of the world: Damascus Protocol Afghanistan, Damascus Protocol Albania, Damascus Protocol Algeria, Damascus Protocol Andorra, Damascus Protocol Angola, Damascus Protocol Antigua & Deps, Damascus Protocol Argentina, Damascus Protocol Armenia, Damascus Protocol Australia, Damascus Protocol Austria, Damascus Protocol Azerbaijan, Damascus Protocol Bahamas, Damascus Protocol Bahrain, Damascus Protocol Bangladesh, Damascus Protocol Barbados, Damascus Protocol Belarus, Damascus Protocol Belgium, Damascus Protocol Belize, Damascus Protocol Benin, Damascus Protocol Bhutan, Damascus Protocol Bolivia, Damascus Protocol Bosnia Herzegovina, Damascus Protocol Botswana, Damascus Protocol Brazil, Damascus Protocol Brunei, Damascus Protocol Bulgaria, Damascus Protocol Burkina, Damascus Protocol Burundi, Damascus Protocol Cambodia, Damascus Protocol Cameroon, Damascus Protocol Canada, Damascus Protocol Cape Verde, Damascus Protocol Central African Rep, Damascus Protocol Chad, Damascus Protocol Chile, Damascus Protocol China, Damascus Protocol Colombia, Damascus Protocol Comoros, Damascus Protocol Congo, Damascus Protocol Congo {Democratic Rep}, Damascus Protocol Costa Rica, Damascus Protocol Croatia, Damascus Protocol Cuba, Damascus Protocol Cyprus, Damascus Protocol Czech Republic, Damascus Protocol Denmark, Damascus Protocol Djibouti, Damascus Protocol Dominica, Damascus Protocol Dominican Republic, Damascus Protocol East Timor, Damascus Protocol Ecuador, Damascus Protocol Egypt, Damascus Protocol El Salvador, Damascus Protocol Equatorial Guinea, Damascus Protocol Eritrea, Damascus Protocol Estonia, Damascus Protocol Ethiopia, Damascus Protocol Fiji, Damascus Protocol Finland, Damascus Protocol France, Damascus Protocol Gabon, Damascus Protocol Gambia, Damascus Protocol Georgia, Damascus Protocol Germany, Damascus Protocol Ghana, Damascus Protocol Greece, Damascus Protocol Grenada, Damascus Protocol Guatemala, Damascus Protocol Guinea, Damascus Protocol Guinea-Bissau, Damascus Protocol Guyana, Damascus Protocol Haiti, Damascus Protocol Honduras, Damascus Protocol Hungary, Damascus Protocol Iceland, Damascus Protocol India, Damascus Protocol Indonesia, Damascus Protocol Iran, Damascus Protocol Iraq, Damascus Protocol Ireland {Republic}, Damascus Protocol Israel, Damascus Protocol Italy, Damascus Protocol Ivory Coast, Damascus Protocol Jamaica, Damascus Protocol Japan, Damascus Protocol Jordan, Damascus Protocol Kazakhstan, Damascus Protocol Kenya, Damascus Protocol Kiribati, Damascus Protocol Korea North, Damascus Protocol Korea South, Damascus Protocol Kosovo, Damascus Protocol Kuwait, Damascus Protocol Kyrgyzstan, Damascus Protocol Laos, Damascus Protocol Latvia, Damascus Protocol Lebanon, Damascus Protocol Lesotho, Damascus Protocol Liberia, Damascus Protocol Libya, Damascus Protocol Liechtenstein, Damascus Protocol Lithuania, Damascus Protocol Luxembourg, Damascus Protocol Macedonia, Damascus Protocol Madagascar, Damascus Protocol Malawi, Damascus Protocol Malaysia, Damascus Protocol Maldives, Damascus Protocol Mali, Damascus Protocol Malta, Damascus Protocol Marshall Islands, Damascus Protocol Mauritania, Damascus Protocol Mauritius, Damascus Protocol Mexico, Damascus Protocol Micronesia, Damascus Protocol Moldova, Damascus Protocol Monaco, Damascus Protocol Mongolia, Damascus Protocol Montenegro, Damascus Protocol Morocco, Damascus Protocol Mozambique, Damascus Protocol Myanmar, {Burma}, Damascus Protocol Namibia, Damascus Protocol Nauru, Damascus Protocol Nepal, Damascus Protocol Netherlands, Damascus Protocol New Zealand, Damascus Protocol Nicaragua, Damascus Protocol Niger, Damascus Protocol Nigeria, Damascus Protocol Norway, Damascus Protocol Oman, Damascus Protocol Pakistan, Damascus Protocol Palau, Damascus Protocol Panama, Damascus Protocol Papua New Guinea, Damascus Protocol Paraguay, Damascus Protocol Peru, Damascus Protocol Philippines, Damascus Protocol Poland, Damascus Protocol Portugal, Damascus Protocol Qatar, Damascus Protocol Romania, Damascus Protocol Russian Federation, Damascus Protocol Rwanda, Damascus Protocol St Kitts & Nevis, Damascus Protocol St Lucia, Damascus Protocol Saint Vincent & the Grenadines, Damascus Protocol Samoa, Damascus Protocol San Marino, Damascus Protocol Sao Tome & Principe, Damascus Protocol Saudi Arabia, Damascus Protocol Senegal, Damascus Protocol Serbia, Damascus Protocol Seychelles, Damascus Protocol Sierra Leone, Damascus Protocol Singapore, Damascus Protocol Slovakia, Damascus Protocol Slovenia, Damascus Protocol Solomon Islands, Damascus Protocol Somalia, Damascus Protocol South Africa, Damascus Protocol Spain, Damascus Protocol Sri Lanka, Damascus Protocol Sudan, Damascus Protocol Suriname, Damascus Protocol Swaziland, Damascus Protocol Sweden, Damascus Protocol Switzerland, Damascus Protocol Syria, Damascus Protocol Taiwan, Damascus Protocol Tajikistan, Damascus Protocol Tanzania, Damascus Protocol Thailand, Damascus Protocol Togo, Damascus Protocol Tonga, Damascus Protocol Trinidad & Tobago, Damascus Protocol Tunisia, Damascus Protocol Turkey, Damascus Protocol Turkmenistan, Damascus Protocol Tuvalu, Damascus Protocol Uganda, Damascus Protocol Ukraine, Damascus Protocol United Arab Emirates, Damascus Protocol United Kingdom, Damascus Protocol United States, Damascus Protocol Uruguay, Damascus Protocol Uzbekistan, Damascus Protocol Vanuatu, Damascus Protocol Vatican City, Damascus Protocol Venezuela, Damascus Protocol Vietnam, Damascus Protocol Yemen, Damascus Protocol Zambia, Damascus Protocol Zimbabwe, etc.

Damascus Protocol in the United States

Damascus Protocol is also an object of search of many Americans, from all cities and states of the USA. The following phrases are usually used: Damascus Protocol New York City, Damascus Protocol NY, Damascus Protocol Los Angeles, Damascus Protocol LA, Damascus Protocol Chicago, Damascus Protocol Houston, Damascus Protocol Phoenix, Damascus Protocol Philadelphia, Damascus Protocol San Antonio, Damascus Protocol San Diego, Damascus Protocol Dallas, Damascus Protocol San Jose, Damascus Protocol Detroit, Damascus Protocol Jacksonville, Damascus Protocol Indianapolis, Damascus Protocol San Francisco, Damascus Protocol Columbus, Damascus Protocol Austin, Damascus Protocol Memphis, Damascus Protocol Fort Worth, Damascus Protocol Baltimore, Damascus Protocol Charlotte, Damascus Protocol El Paso, Damascus Protocol Milwaukee, Damascus Protocol Boston, Damascus Protocol Seattle, Damascus Protocol Denver, Damascus Protocol Washington, Damascus Protocol Alabama, Damascus Protocol Alaska, Damascus Protocol Arizona, Damascus Protocol Arkansas, Damascus Protocol California, Damascus Protocol Colorado, Damascus Protocol Connecticut, Damascus Protocol Delaware, Damascus Protocol Florida, Damascus Protocol Georgia, Damascus Protocol Hawaii, Damascus Protocol Idaho, Damascus Protocol Illinois, Damascus Protocol Indiana, Damascus Protocol Iowa, Damascus Protocol Kansas, Damascus Protocol Kentucky, Damascus Protocol Louisiana, Damascus Protocol Maine, Damascus Protocol Maryland, Damascus Protocol Massachusetts, Damascus Protocol Michigan, Damascus Protocol Minnesota, Damascus Protocol Mississippi, Damascus Protocol Missouri, Damascus Protocol Montana, Damascus Protocol Nebraska, Damascus Protocol Nevada, Damascus Protocol New Hampshire, Damascus Protocol New Jersey, Damascus Protocol New Mexico, Damascus Protocol New York, Damascus Protocol North Carolina, Damascus Protocol North Dakota, Damascus Protocol Ohio, Damascus Protocol Oklahoma, Damascus Protocol Oregon, Damascus Protocol Pennsylvania, Damascus Protocol Rhode Island, Damascus Protocol South Carolina, Damascus Protocol South Dakota, Damascus Protocol Tennessee, Damascus Protocol Texas, Damascus Protocol Utah, Damascus Protocol Vermont, Damascus Protocol Virginia, Damascus Protocol Washington, Damascus Protocol West Virginia, Damascus Protocol Wisconsin, Damascus Protocol Wyoming, etc.

Do you want to know more? Look at the full version of the Damascus Protocol article.

   
Super Offers
Super Sale
Why qesign.com
18-Year Design Experience
24/7 Service, No Weekends
Lowest Fixed Prices
Exceptional Quality Guarantee
150+ Designs in the Portfolio
Pro Website Design Services
Pro Graphic Design Services
Pro Photo Editing Services
Fast & Easy Online Ordering
Various Payment Methods
Fast & Professional Support
Contact Us
Web: www.qesign.com
Email:
Twitter News: follow
RSS: subscribe
ICQ Chat: 11170351
MSN:
Skype Chat: qesigncom
Yahoo! Chat: qesigncom
AIM Chat: qesign1
GG Chat: qesign
Voicemail & Fax: 1.206.6666090
Special Offers
Related Offers
Premium website templates, deluxe graphic layoutsPremium Designs
Exclusively designed, deluxe web templates and layouts
Flash photo albums, Flash picture gallery templatesFlash Online Photo Albums
Dynamic Flash photo gallery templates, online photo albums
AllStockMusic stock music collection saleAllStockMusic
The best stock music collections for your projects
Photo store, picture shop, image saleRoyalty-Free Photos
Best pictures for a web design, graphic design, and printing
Webmaster software, web design software, graphic design softwareSoftware Sale
Best website design software and graphic design software
Low-cost, professional website hosting & domain registrationWeb Hosting Sale
hosting sale. Order now & save!


© 1996-2014 MAGIA Internet Studio
AboutPortfolioPhoto on DemandHostingAdvertiseSitemapPrivacyMaria Online